Mazur Chapter 8: Theories and Research on Operant Conditioning Flashcards Preview

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1
Q

Tolman v Thorndike

A

Thorndike thought that the performance of the response was necessary for it to be learned

Tolman challenged this with his rats and cognitive map

We now agree with Tolman as learning can occur without the opportunity to practice the operant response

Thorndike’s idea can also be challenged by latent learning

2
Q

Tolman: Latent Learning

A

Reinforcement is not necessary for the learning of a new response

However, it is necessary for the performance of that response

Reinforcer does help

3
Q

The Role of the Reinforcer

A

Thorndike and Hull:

  • reinforcer is more of a catalyst
  • it strengthens an S-R association
  • but the reinforcer itself is not included in that association

Tolmam:

  • reinforcer stimulates associative
  • reinforcer also becomes a part of the associative network
  • animal “develops an expectation” of the reinforcer
4
Q

two-factor theory

A

classical and operant conditioning are 2 different types of learning.

5
Q

one-factor theory

A

reinforcement and punishment can apply to all types of learning, including the responses of an individual’s glands, organs, and smooth muscles

6
Q

N.E. Miller and two-factor theory

A

Experiment involved electric stimulation of the brain (ESB)

Reinforcement could control many visceral responses besides heart rate

It seems that reinforcement can exert direct control over some visceral responses when the activity of the skeletal muscles has been eliminated, but this control is not as easy to obtain as the early studies seem to suggest

7
Q

Biofeedback

A

Any procedure designed to supply the individual with amplified feedback about some bodily process

The reasoning is that improved feedback may be accompanied by the possibility of better control.

biofeedback using EEG = neurofeedback

8
Q

Circular Definition of Reinforcement

A

A stimulus is called a reinforcer because it increases some behavior…
A stimulus is said to increase the behavior because it is a reinforcer

This simple definition of a reinforcer makes no specific predictions whatsoever

This can be solved though by finding a rule that predicts what can be a reinforcer. Some theories are:

Need reduction

Drive reduction

Trans-situationality

Premack’s principle

Response Deprivation Theory

Functional analysis of behaviors and reinforcers

9
Q

Need Reduction [Hull]

A

All primary reinforcers are stimuli that reduce some biological need and that all stimuli that reduce a biological need will act as reinforcers
• Ex: food, water, warmth, and avoidance of pain

10
Q

Drive Reduction [Hull and Miller]

A

Strong stimulation of any sort is aversive to an organism and any reduction in this stimulation acts as a reinforcer for the immediately preceding behavior.

e.g. hunger and sex drives

11
Q

Problems with Need Reduction Theory

A

There are reinforcers that satisfy no biological needs

There are examples of biological necessities for which there is no corresponding reinforcer

12
Q

Problems with Drive Reduction Theory

A

Not all reductions in stimulations act as reinforcers

There are too many examples of reinforcers that either produce no decrease in stimulation or actually produce an increase in stimulation

e.g. reinforcers such as music, sports, etc

13
Q

Trans-situationality

A

A stimulus that is determined to be a reinforcer in one situation will also be a reinforcer in other situations
• If saccharin is a reinforcer once, we suspect it will always be so

Principle works quite well in many cases
e.g. food, water, escape from pain can be used as reinforcers for many different behaviors

However, there are some cases in which a reinforcer does not work across situations

14
Q

Premack’s principle

A

More probable behaviors will reinforce less probable behaviors

Premack’s principle is a.k.a. as the principle of reinforcement relativity.

Basicallay, Premack believed that thereinforcement procedure should be viewed as a contingency between behaviors rather than as a contingency between a behavior and a stimulus.

e.g. rats: level pressing and eating
eating can occur if and only if a lever press occurs

If this is the case then some behaviors are reinforceable behaviors (lever pressing) and others are reinforcing behaviors (eating)

There are no absolute categories of reinforces and reinforceable responses, and which role a behavior plays depends on its relative location on the probability scale.

15
Q

Premack’s principle and punishment

A

Less probable behaviors will punish more probable behaviors.

One way to accomplish this is through reciprocal contingency

16
Q

reciprocal contingency

A

Ensures that the low-probability behavior can be performed so that 2 behaviors occur in a fixed proportion

Has been very effective in behavior modification

17
Q

“Premackian Reinforcers”

A

Behaviors themselves can serve as reinforcers

E.g. reading, playing cards, phoning a friend, watching television

His behaviors or uses reinforcers for desired behavior such as exercising, studying, or avoiding smoking

18
Q

Response Deprivation Theory [Timberlake and Allison]

A

Whenever a contingency restricts an individual’s access to some behavior compared to baseline the restricted behavior will serve as a reinforcer, regardless of whether it is a high probability or a low-probability behavior

The more restricted behavior will act as a reinforcer for the less restricted behavior

Most reliable predictor of all of the theories thus far

A refinement of Premack’s principle, which is violated if a schedule requires much more of the high-probability behavior than the low-probability behavior

19
Q

Functional Analysis of Behaviors and Reinforcers

A

Functional Analysis:

  1. Determines what reinforcer is maintaining some undesired behavior
  2. Eliminates these behaviors

It allows the therapist to determine what reinforcer is maintaining the unwanted behavior

Maladaptive behaviors may occur for any reason: positive or negative reinforcer, as well as, an automatic reinforcer

Some behaviors-especially repetitive motions or Self-Injurious Behaviors may produce a sensory stimulation from the behavior itself which acts as a reinforcer

20
Q

Behavioral economics

A

Product of psychologists and economics

Optimization theory

21
Q

Optimization theory

A

a person will distribute their income in whatever way maximizes her “subjective value” (most satisfaction)
o Can be applied to animals also
o A predator is not going to try and capture a small prey if it will take 1 hour when it can have a larger prey for less work

22
Q

Elastic Demand

A

The amount of a commodity purchased decreases markedly when its price increases

23
Q

Inelastic demand

A

The change in the price of a product has relatively little effect on the amount purchased

24
Q

Demand Curve

A

Graphical representation of the reported consumption of a product based on price