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Juran's breakthrough sequence

  • breakthrough in attitudes - management climate
  • identify vital projects - by Pareto analysis
  • Organise knowledge breakthrough - steering and diagnostic groups
  • conduct analysis - by diagnostic group
  • overcome resistance to change - participation is key
  • institute change - training essential
  • institute control - formal follow-up




Process Word (Contrast)

Set in opposition in order to bring out the differences - you may also note that there are similarities.




Project definition


Process Word (Summarise)

give a clear, short description, explanation or account, presenting the chief factors and omitting minor details and examples - see also outline.


Handling Operational Improvement

  • Operational Improvement enhances the performance of a system thereby tightening its operational limits.

The Deming-Shewart approach has four steps.
1 Plan. This involves deciding on the changes that might be desirable,
evaluating the data that are available, considering whether new
observations are needed and deciding how to use the observations.
2 Do. Undertake the change that has been decided upon, preferably in
a small experimental way.
3 Check. Observe the effects of the change or the experiment. Study the
results, decide what has been learnt and what can be predicted.
4 Act. Put the change into effect.


What are the external market factors of an integrative approach?

  • Product features:
    • Primary - basic purpose
    • Secondary - distinguishing features
    • Tertiary - discovered after purchase
  • Grade - tightness of specification and degree to which specification is met.
  • Availability - time between decision to purchase and acquisition
  • Price:
    • Purchase price
    • In-use price
    • Disposal cost
  • Response time - time to develop a new product
  • Sales/General competence

All these features can be represented in a polar graph


Innovation and Technical Change (II)

  • Invention begins with a new basic set of ideas
  • Innovations are based on inventions but are designed for commercial exploitation
  • Innovation is a social activity and for a company to be successful at it, it must be a learning organisation
  • Two drivers for innovation
    • Market push
    • Market pull
  • Legislation can be a powerful way of generating market pull

Revolutionary Innovation - new technology, new markets

Radical Innovation - new technology, existing markets

Market Niche - existing technology, new markets

Regular Innovation - existing technology, existing markets

Different industries have different combinations of technical and market complexity



Robust Design

Design is ‘robust’ if it has enough design flexibility to evolve to satisfy changing needs.

A robust design provides a platform for subsequent product derivatives.  Conversely, a ‘lean’ design may satisfy current requirements but will be difficult to develop.

Design that simplifies the manufacturing process can reduce costs significantly.


Process Word (Assess)

Determine the value of, weight up - see also Evaluate


What are the three phases in the lifespan of an industry?

The Abernathy-Utterback model distinguishes the following three phases:

  • Fluid phase - level of innovation high. Product continually modified to meet needs of users
  • Transitional phase - design established. Emphasis shifts to process innovation
  • Specific phase - incremental process innovation

Product innovation and process innovation are linked, with the former leading the latter.



Integrating frameworks notes

There is no single best way of managing. This theory has been replaced by the contingency theory of innovation management i.e. the best way to manage ‘all
depends’ on various factors.
• Science can be incremental in nature where it follows the theory-hypothesis-experiment route (normal science), or it can be radical where a paradigm shift occurs (revolutionary science).
• Different stakeholders are likely to have differing views regarding innovation in an organization.
• Investors require a greater return as a reward for taking on more risk. Therefore, a portfolio of projects must earn a risk-adjusted rate of return.
• We can construct a 3-dimensional matrix to assess 3 types of risk in relation to projects:
– Uncertainty over output
– Uncertainty over transformation process
– Uncertainty about administration and control
• Defensive companies will undertake projects that are at the low end of the above dimensions. Aggressive companies will target the high end.
• One way of reducing risk is to restrict innovation to one of the above dimensions at a time.


Process Word (Compare)

Look for and show the similarities and differences between examples, perhaps reach a conclusion about which is preferable and justify this.


Important factors in R&D activities

Rothwell and Zegveld identify three important factors:

  • Technology explosion
  • Shortening of the technology cycle
  • Globalisation of technology


Tools and techniques for implementing programmes of incremental innovation

  • Product mapping
  • Quality Function deployment
  • Experience curves
  • Continuous Improvement - Kaizen
  • Robust design


Features of radical innovation vs incremental innovation

*Attributes associated with radical innovation are not negatve


Process Word (Criticise)

Make a judgement backed by a reasoned discussion of the evidence involved, describe the merit of theories or opinions or the truth of assertions.


What is Technology Management?

A field that links engineering, science and management disciplines to plan, develop and implement technological capabilities to shape and accomplish the strategic and operational objectives of an organization.

Improving the effectiveness of an organisation by operating, improving and integrating existing systems and by introducing innovation (B1, p.33)


Ford TOPS(8D) approach to problem solving

Block 1


Team Approach
Describe Problem
Implement Interium Actions
Define Root Cause
Choose Perm Actions
Implement Perm Actions


Operations, Strategy and Mission

  • The value of a misson statement is that it should be intended for both internal and external audiences. Also, a good mission statement includes the things that won't be done, as well as those that will
  • Looking top-down, the mission is pre-eminent; the strategy and operations serve the mission. Strategic management sets longer term goals while operational management is concerned with the here and now. There may be a middle ground occupied by tactical management.


Product Cycles

Block 2

2 curved hills on graph

First - Product
Second - Process


Process Word (Justify)

give reasons for a point of view, decisions or conclusions, and mention any main objections or arguments against.



  • sort of a monopoly of the technology
  • product is launched into the market before the competition
  • significant R&D activity and substancial marketing resources


Process Word (Discuss)

explain, then give two sides of the issue and any implications.


What are the phases in the life of a project?


Deming approach to Quality

Deming has a 14 point programme:

  1. Management should concentrate on long term rather than short term
  2. Poor workmanship and products is unacceptable
  3. Quality must be built in, not inspected in
  4. Do not purchase from suppliers on price alone
  5. Continually improve the process
  6. Re-define training targets and measure successful training
  7. Institute modern supervision methods
  8. Drive out fear
  9. Break down barriers between departments
  10. Eliminate numerical goals for the work force
  11. Eliminate work standards and numerical quotas
  12. Remove barriers that hinder hourly workers
  13. Institute a programmer of education and training
  14. Create a top management structure to emphasize the above 13 points


Integrating Frameworks


Process Word (Illustrate)

make clear and explicit, and give carefully chosen examples.


What can be different for a product cycle in the service sector?

The product cycle might be reversed.

  1. Technology introduced to improve an existing service (improved efficiency)
  2. Improvements in service are observerd (improved quality)
  3. New services are developed i.e. innovation (new products)