Flashcards in MBM Deck (64)
Shuttle used for B-Oxi?
Pyruvate gets ___ to become lactate
Reduced by NADH via lactate dehydrogenase
How many protons are pumped through complex II?
Iorganic phosphate is brought into the matrix by ___
A buildup of citrate allosterically inhibits which Glycolytic enzyme?
PFK-1, the Rate Limiting Step!!
Oxidized idd fatty acids become three carbon ____ CoA, which gets converted into Methylmalonyl-CoA and lastly into _____ CoA which can feed into the TCA to make glucose!
For Gluconeogenesis, where does Glycerol 3 Phosphate come from?
Stored fats/Triacylglycerols in adipose tissue
Adding Amino Group to a-Ketoglutarate makes?
Where is Glucose 6-Phosphatase exclusively found?
The lumen of the ER in Liver Cells.
What does Fructose 1,6 bisphosphate get cleaved into?
DHAP and G3P
In the fasting state, the liver (via HMG-CoA synthase/HMG-CoA lyase) converts excess acetyl-CoA (from B-oxi of FAs) into the Ketone bodies ____ and ____ which can be used for energy in various tissues.
Why don't muscle cells have Glucose-6-Phosphatase?
It ensures that glucose in muscle is solely used up by the muscle; we want to prevent degradation!
The portion of ATP synthase that spans the membrane?
F0 (ion channel)
In conditions of low oxygen, what does the IF-1 Inhibitor do?
Inhibits the ATPase activity of the transporter
What two things occur during E3's Dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase?
1. SH's are de-hydrogenated to form oxidized lipoyllysine with FAD-->FADH2
2. NAD+-->NADH by oxidizing FADH2
Glucogenic Amino acids
All except Leucine and Lysine
Three fates of Pyruvate?
1. Acetyl CoA via Pyruvate Dehydrogenase
2. Lactic Acid via Lactate dehydrogenase
3. Oxaloacetate via Pyruvate carboxylase
Two steps where ATP is made in glycolysis
1,3 bisphospho-->3Phosphoglycerate by phosphoglycerate Kinase
PEP-->Pyruvate by pyruvate kinase
Where does acetyl coA need to go and how does it get there for Fatty Acid Synthesis?
You need cytoplasmic Acetyl-CoA via the Citrate Shuttle.
Type I nuclear receptors vs Type II
I are in cytoplasm before activation, II reside constitutively in the nucleus
Transketolase and Transaldolase serve to transform Fructose6P and GlycerAldehyde3P into _______
The Limiting factor of respiration is the amount of ___
Does Insulin promote or inhibit Pyruvate dehydrogenase activity, and why?
Promotes it, because insulin means well-fed. Well-fed means you want to Burn Glucose or Store, which are the two potential outcomes of Acetyl Co-A(product of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase)
"Activating" fatty acids refers to the attachment of ___ group
Shuttle used for FA synthesis?
Insulin's effect on Pyruvate dehydrogenase Phosphatase?
Promotes it, because E1 becomes active when it's NOT phosphorylated.
The Non-oxidative phase of PPP generates
Glucose 6 Phosphate, through transketolase and transaldolase
Two NADH shuttles?
1. Glycerol 3P-FAD Shuttle (1.5 ATP)
2. Malate-aspartate (2.5 ATP)
Why is Thiamine important to give to patients before glucose with patients that have thiamine deficiency?
Lactic Acidosis occurs because pyruvate cannot be acetyl coA! TPP is essential in the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex.