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Flashcards in MBM Deck (64)
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1

Shuttle used for B-Oxi?

Carnitine

2

Pyruvate gets ___ to become lactate

Reduced by NADH via lactate dehydrogenase

3

How many protons are pumped through complex II?

None

4

Iorganic phosphate is brought into the matrix by ___

Phosphate translocase

5

A buildup of citrate allosterically inhibits which Glycolytic enzyme?

PFK-1, the Rate Limiting Step!!

6

Oxidized idd fatty acids become three carbon ____ CoA, which gets converted into Methylmalonyl-CoA and lastly into _____ CoA which can feed into the TCA to make glucose!

Propionyl, Succinyl

7

For Gluconeogenesis, where does Glycerol 3 Phosphate come from?

Stored fats/Triacylglycerols in adipose tissue

8

Adding Amino Group to a-Ketoglutarate makes?

Glutamate

9

Where is Glucose 6-Phosphatase exclusively found?

The lumen of the ER in Liver Cells.

10

What does Fructose 1,6 bisphosphate get cleaved into?

DHAP and G3P

11

In the fasting state, the liver (via HMG-CoA synthase/HMG-CoA lyase) converts excess acetyl-CoA (from B-oxi of FAs) into the Ketone bodies ____ and ____ which can be used for energy in various tissues.

Acetoacetate, 3-hydroxybutyrate

12

Why don't muscle cells have Glucose-6-Phosphatase?

It ensures that glucose in muscle is solely used up by the muscle; we want to prevent degradation!

13

The portion of ATP synthase that spans the membrane?

F0 (ion channel)

14

In conditions of low oxygen, what does the IF-1 Inhibitor do?

Inhibits the ATPase activity of the transporter

15

What two things occur during E3's Dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase?

1. SH's are de-hydrogenated to form oxidized lipoyllysine with FAD-->FADH2
2. NAD+-->NADH by oxidizing FADH2

16

Glucogenic Amino acids

All except Leucine and Lysine

17

Three fates of Pyruvate?

1. Acetyl CoA via Pyruvate Dehydrogenase
2. Lactic Acid via Lactate dehydrogenase
3. Oxaloacetate via Pyruvate carboxylase

18

Two steps where ATP is made in glycolysis

1,3 bisphospho-->3Phosphoglycerate by phosphoglycerate Kinase

PEP-->Pyruvate by pyruvate kinase

19

Where does acetyl coA need to go and how does it get there for Fatty Acid Synthesis?

You need cytoplasmic Acetyl-CoA via the Citrate Shuttle.

20

Type I nuclear receptors vs Type II

I are in cytoplasm before activation, II reside constitutively in the nucleus

21

Transketolase and Transaldolase serve to transform Fructose6P and GlycerAldehyde3P into _______

Ribose 5P

22

The Limiting factor of respiration is the amount of ___

ADP

23

Does Insulin promote or inhibit Pyruvate dehydrogenase activity, and why?

Promotes it, because insulin means well-fed. Well-fed means you want to Burn Glucose or Store, which are the two potential outcomes of Acetyl Co-A(product of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase)

24

"Activating" fatty acids refers to the attachment of ___ group

S-CoA

25

Shuttle used for FA synthesis?

Citrate Shuttle

26

Insulin's effect on Pyruvate dehydrogenase Phosphatase?

Promotes it, because E1 becomes active when it's NOT phosphorylated.

27

The Non-oxidative phase of PPP generates

Glucose 6 Phosphate, through transketolase and transaldolase

28

Two NADH shuttles?

1. Glycerol 3P-FAD Shuttle (1.5 ATP)
2. Malate-aspartate (2.5 ATP)

29

Why is Thiamine important to give to patients before glucose with patients that have thiamine deficiency?

Lactic Acidosis occurs because pyruvate cannot be acetyl coA! TPP is essential in the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex.

30

___ causes release of GDP so that GTP can bind and activate the G protein

GEFs