Flashcards in MCBG 14 Deck (23):
Name 3 micro-mutations
Name 4 macro-Mutations
What are the two types of mutations?
Frame shift mutations
Whats a non-sense mutation?
Changes a amino acid into a stop codon
whats a mis-sense mutations?
Mis-sense proteins cause a change in amino acid
Mis-sense mutations can be broken down into 3 types...
1) Silent mutations (no change in polypeptide change
2) Conservative Mutations - amino acid is changed to another similar amino acid
3) non-conservative mutations - amino acid changes to an amino acid with different properties
Acidic side chained at pH 7 Amino acids. Give 2 examples?
aspartic acid or aspartate (Asp) and glutamic acid or glutamate (Glu)
Basic side chained at pH 7 Amino acids . Give 2 examples?
Arginine (Arg), Lysine (Lys), and Histidine (His).
Whats the difference between a oncogene and a proto oncogene?
A proto-oncogene is a normal gene that can mutate and become an oncogene. An oncogene is a normal gene that can under certain circumstances can change into a tumour cell. Proto-oncogene is step 1. oncogene is step 2
Why is a ‘gain of function’ mutation is more likely to produce a dominant trait than a recessive trait.
Because they are more likely to survive because the work and they can out compete normal proteins
Name 5 types of endogenous DNA damage
1) Oxidation of bases
2) Alkylation of bases
3) Hydrolysis of bases
4) Bulky Adduct formation
5) Mismatch of Bases
What occurs to DNA when it is damaged by UV-B light
crosslinking between adjacent cytosine and thymine bases creating pyrimidine dimers
What occurs to DNA when it is damaged by UV-A light
creates mostly free radicals. The damage caused by free radicals is called indirect DNA damage.
What occurs to DNA when it is damaged by Ionizing radiation
Single and Double stranded breaks in DNA. Intrastrand crosslinks
What occurs to DNA when it is damaged by Thermal disruption
Depurination (loss of purine bases from the DNA backbone)
What occurs to DNA when it is damaged by DNA mistakes
What is Nitrous Acid? How is it formed?
A mutagen. Sodium nitrate is converted into Nitrous Acid in the stomach which can deaminate of C and A
Which bases are purines?
A and G. Pure As Gold. They're also the larger molcules
Which bases are pyridamines?
Pyrimidine = CUT
Cytosine, Uracil, Thymine
How could you test DNA for nucleotide level mistakes? 2
PCR plus restriction analysis/DNA sequencing
How could you test DNA for gene level mistakes?
DNA fingerprinting/DNA profiling
How could you test DNA for nucleotide level mistakes?
FISH / Chromosome painting