MCBG 14 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in MCBG 14 Deck (23):
1

Name 3 micro-mutations

Insertion,
deletion,
substitutions

2

Name 4 macro-Mutations

Deletion
Duplication
Inversion
Substitution
Translocation....DDIST

3

What are the two types of mutations?

Point mutations
Frame shift mutations

4

Whats a non-sense mutation?

Changes a amino acid into a stop codon

5

whats a mis-sense mutations?

Mis-sense proteins cause a change in amino acid

6

Mis-sense mutations can be broken down into 3 types...

1) Silent mutations (no change in polypeptide change
2) Conservative Mutations - amino acid is changed to another similar amino acid
3) non-conservative mutations - amino acid changes to an amino acid with different properties

7

Acidic side chained at pH 7 Amino acids. Give 2 examples?

aspartic acid or aspartate (Asp) and glutamic acid or glutamate (Glu)

8

Basic side chained at pH 7 Amino acids . Give 2 examples?

Arginine (Arg), Lysine (Lys), and Histidine (His).

9

Whats the difference between a oncogene and a proto oncogene?

A proto-oncogene is a normal gene that can mutate and become an oncogene. An oncogene is a normal gene that can under certain circumstances can change into a tumour cell. Proto-oncogene is step 1. oncogene is step 2

10

Why is a ‘gain of function’ mutation is more likely to produce a dominant trait than a recessive trait.

Because they are more likely to survive because the work and they can out compete normal proteins

11

Name 5 types of endogenous DNA damage

1) Oxidation of bases
2) Alkylation of bases
3) Hydrolysis of bases
4) Bulky Adduct formation
5) Mismatch of Bases

12

What occurs to DNA when it is damaged by UV-B light

crosslinking between adjacent cytosine and thymine bases creating pyrimidine dimers

13

What occurs to DNA when it is damaged by UV-A light

creates mostly free radicals. The damage caused by free radicals is called indirect DNA damage.

14

What occurs to DNA when it is damaged by Ionizing radiation

Single and Double stranded breaks in DNA. Intrastrand crosslinks

15

What occurs to DNA when it is damaged by Thermal disruption

Depurination (loss of purine bases from the DNA backbone)
Single-strand breaks

16

What occurs to DNA when it is damaged by DNA mistakes

Micro-mutations..
insertion,
substitution,
substitution

17

What is Nitrous Acid? How is it formed?

A mutagen. Sodium nitrate is converted into Nitrous Acid in the stomach which can deaminate of C and A

18

Which bases are purines?

A and G. Pure As Gold. They're also the larger molcules

19

Which bases are pyridamines?

Pyrimidine = CUT
Cytosine, Uracil, Thymine

20

How could you test DNA for nucleotide level mistakes? 2

DNA sequencing
PCR plus restriction analysis/DNA sequencing

21

How could you test DNA for gene level mistakes?

Southern hybridisation
Northern hybridisation
RT-PCR
Microarray
DNA fingerprinting/DNA profiling

22

How could you test DNA for nucleotide level mistakes?

Karyotyping
FISH / Chromosome painting

23

Whats the use of PCR?

Used to make lots of copies of a fragment of DNA