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Flashcards in MCM- Cellular Transport Deck (141):
1

The goal of this is to sustain life and capture/harness energy

Metabolism

2

(+) Delta G is what type of reaction

Endergonic Reaction

3

(-) Delta G is what type of reaction

Exergonic Reaction

4

K(eq) = 1

Equilibrium

5

K(eq) > 1

Spontaneous; Exergonic

6

K(eq) < 1

Not Spontaneous, Endergonic

7

What is the most important reaction to sustain life

Acid/Base

8

Bi-Carbonate Ion

Increases pH

9

Acetic Acid Buffer

Decreases pH

10

Kidney Regulation of Blood pH; High

Decreases removal of H+; Decrease absorption of HCO3-

11

Kidney Regulation of Blood pH; Low

Increase removal of H+; Increase absorption of HCO3-

12

Normal Blood pH

7.00 +/- 0.03 (7.37-7.43)

13

Respiratory Acidosis

Not breathing enough, retain CO2; increasing H+ in the blood

14

Hypoventilation effect on blood pH

Respiratory Acidosis

15

Metabolic Acidosis

Addition of strong Acid; loss of HCO3-

16

Respiratory Alkalosis

Breathing too much, lose too much CO2, decrease H+ in the blood

17

Hyperventilation effect on blood pH

Respiratory Alkalosis

18

Metabolic Alkalosis

Too many Tums or strong bases added

19

Enzymes effect on a Rxn

Lower Ea (Activation Energy)

20

3 Parts that determine a reaction

Delta G, Ea (Activation Energy), Transition State

21

6 Classes of Reaction

Oxidoreductase, Transferase, Isomerase, Lyases, Ligases, and Hydrolases

22

Oxidoreductase

Transfer e- from donor to acceptor

23

Transferase

Transfer functional group between molecules

24

Isomerase

Transfer functional group internally

25

Lyases (Synthase)

Add or remove atoms to/or from double bonds

26

Ligases (Synthetase)

Form bonds w/ hydrolysis of ATP

27

Hydrolase

Cleave bonds w/ addition of H20

28

Fit Perfectly into the Active Site

Lock and Key

29

Binds and produces a confirmation change on the active site

Induced Fit

30

Co-Factors

Metal ions, non-covalent interactions, stabilize

31

Co-Enzymes

Small Organic Molecules

32

Copper Co-Factor

Cytochrome C Oxidase

33

Cytochrome C Oxidase

Accepts e- form cytochrome-c in the e- transport chain

34

Iron Co-Factor

Heme Proteins (Hemo- and myo- globin)

35

Magnesium Co-Factor

ATPases

36

ATPases

Hydrolyze ATP to ADP and use released energy for mechanical work

37

Selenium Co-Factor

Glutathione Peroxidase

38

Glutathione Peroxidase

anti-oxidant, detoxifies hydrogen peroxide

39

Zinc Co-Factor

Superoxide Dismutase

40

Superoxide Dismutase

anti-oxidant, Binds free radical of molecular oxygen

41

Co-Enzyme Types

Prosthetic group or Co-Substrate

42

Prosthetic Group

Permanent Association; Ex. FAD, FMN, Heme

43

Co-Suubstrate

Temporary Association (Bind and Release); Ex. NAD+

44

Covalent Modifactions of Enzymess (2)

Phosphorylation and Dephosphorylation

45

Enzyme Kinetic Dependents

Substrate Concentration, Km-> Affinity to bind substrate, and Vmax-> max speed at which reaction can occur

46

Enzyme Inhibitors (3)

Non-Competitive

Competitive

Uncompetitive

47

Competitive Inhibition

Can be overcome with increase in [S]

No effect on Vmax

Affinity to bind substrate decrease, so Km Increases

48

Non-Competitive Inhibition

Lowers Vmax because increasing [S] doesnt help

Binds both E and E+S

Km unchanged because it does not bind at active site

49

Uncompetitive

Km and Vmax go down at same factor

Binds E+S only

 

50

Inactivation

Irreversible loss of function of the enzyme; destruction of key functional groups

Decrease Vmax, Km is unchanged

Vmax goes down because adding [S] does not help

Only overcome by making new enzymes

51

Chelating co-factors

Inhibits the enzyme

52

What is EDTA used for

Chelating out Lead in lead poisoning. EDTA-Ca is introduced and Lead (Pb) binds the EDTA which then is excreted harmlessly through the urine

53

Allosteric Modification

Non-covalent modification; not on the active site

Induces confirmational change in the enzyme

can be positive or negative

54

Isozymes

Same function; different properties depending on the location of the enzyme (i.e. heart, brain, etc.)

55

What marker is released for an MI

Troponin, cTn-1, the specific troponin for cardiac myocytes

56

Max sensitivity of Troponin after MI

10-24 Hours after onset

57

Why are Pro-Enzymes made in an inactive state

So they do not damage the area in which they are made

Mainly digestive enzymes

58

3 Groups of Membrane Lipids

Phospholipids

Glycolipids

Cholesterol

59

2 Groups of Phospolipids

Glycerophospholipids

and

Sphingolipids

60

Glycerophospholipid Make Up

Glycerol backbone, w/ phosphate and 2 fatty acids

 

61

Sphinogolipid Make Up

Sphingosine backbone, long fatty acid chain, and phosphorylcholine

62

Glycolipds Make Up

Sphingosine with Carbohydrate residue

 

63

Where are glycolipids found

Outter leaflet of Lipid Bi-Layer

 

64

Cholesterol Make-up

Steroid nucleus with hydroxyl group and hydrocarbon chain

 

65

Cholesterol Location in Lipid Bi-Layer

Embedded in the lipid bi-layer

66

Phosphatidylserine Importance with Apoptosis

When Apoptosis is triggered, Phosphatidylserine is put outside the plasme membrane, phagocytes or macrophage recognize this and destroy the cell

67

Niemann-Pick Disease Cause

 

Deficiency of Acid Sphingomyelinase

 

68

Niemann-Pick Disease Presentation

Hallmark is the cherry red spot in the eye, enlargement of the liver and spleen, along with neuro damage

69

Deficiency of Acid Sphingomyelinase

Niemann-Pick Disease

70

Acid Sphinogomylenase Job

Break down sphingo myelin in the lysosome

71

3 Types of Membrane Proteins

Integral

Peripheral 

Lipid

72

Integral Membrane Protein location

Weave in and out of the bi-layer

 

73

Integral Membrane Protein Job

Act as:

transporters

Ion Channels

Receptors

74

Peripheral Membrane Proteins Location

Loosely bound to the membrane, can be removed

75

Lipid-Anchored Membrane Protein Location

Tethered to membrane via covalent bond

 

76

Glycocalyx Functions (3)

  1. Protection
  2. Adhesion
  3. Identification

77

Blood Types

O

A

B

AB

78

Antigens on the O-Blood Type

H-Antigen; Universal Donor

79

Antigen on the A-Blood Type

Antigen A

80

Antigen on the B-Blood type

Antigen B

81

Antigen on the AB-Blood Type

Antigen A

Antigen B

82

Anti-Bodies on O-Blood Type

Anti-Bodies:

A & B

83

Anti-Bodies on the A-blood type

Antibodies:

B

84

Anti-bodies on the B-Blood Type

Antibodies

A

85

Anti-bodies on the AB- Blood type

Antibodies

None

Universal Accepter

86

When the Mom and Unborn Child's Rh factor are different

Erthythroblastosis

87

Erythroblastosis

When the mom and unborn child's Rh factor dont match

88

When is Erythroblastosis fatal

When the second child is conceived with different Rh

No Anti-bodies the first time

89

3 Factors that affect Membrane Fluidity

Temperature

Saturation of Fatty Acids

Cholesterol

90

What Causes Spur Cell Anemia

Too much cholesterol in RBC's

The RBC's become rigid and lyse in the cappilaries of the spleen

91

When there is too much cholesterol in the RBC's and they lyse in the capillaries of the Spleen

Spur Cell Anemia

92

Types of Transport within the Cell

Passive

and

Active

 

93

Two Types of Active Transport

 

Primary

and Secondary

94

Primary Active Transport

vs.

Secondary Active Transport

Primary Active uses ATP directly to move a molecule against its ion gradient

 

Secondary Active uses the gradient that the Primary Active transport setup to move something against its gradient

95

What type of transport is the Na+/K+ ATPase

Active Primary Transport

96

What Type of Transport is the Na+/Ca2+ Exchange

Secondary Active Transport

97

Examples of Passive Simple Diffusion

H20, O2, Ethanol

98

Examples of Passive Facilitated Diffusion

Voltage Gated Na+ channel

Glucose Transporter

 

99

What does Invokana Inhibit

Blocks the re-uptake of glucose; excreting more in the urine

100

Autosomal Recessive Mutation which causes thickened mucos

Cystic Fibrosis

 

101

Which mutation in Cystic Fibrosis causes the symptoms

The CFTR gene; a chlorine channel

102

How does the defective Chlorine channel in Cystic Fibrosis lead to the symptoms

More negative charge in cell, bring in Na+ to offset the charge, salinity increases, water is brought in to offset salinity, outside of cell is dry.  This happens in airway epithileal cells -> thickened mucous

103

What Causes Cystinuria

Defect in transport for uptake of cystine and other dibasic amino acids

104

What disease occurs when there is a defect in the transporter of cystine and other dibasic amino acids

Cystinuria

105

What does Cystinuria result in

Formation of crystals or stones in the kidneys

106

How does Cystinuria Present

With renal cholic

107

What kind of genetic defect is present in Hartnup Disease

Autosomal recessive, 

108

What is defective in Hartnup Disease

Transporter for non-polar/neutral Amino Acids. 

Most importantly Tryptophan

109

What autosomal recessive disease occurs when there is a defect in the transporter for neutral/non-polar amino acids?

Hartnup Disease

110

Hartnup Disease A.K.A.

Pellagra

111

Hartnup Disease Presents with

Cerebellar ataxia, nystagmus, tremor, photodermatitis, and photosensitivity

112

Name Two Cardiotonic Drugs

Digoxin and Ouabain

113

What are Glycosidic Cardiac Drugs

Ouabain and Digoxin

114

What do Digoxin and Ouabain inhibit

Na+/K+ ATPase in the cardiac myocyte

 

115

What is the primary target of Ouabain and Digoxin

Na+/K+ ATPase

116

What is the clinical target of Digoxin and Ouabain

The Na+/Ca2+ Exchanger

 

117

Effect of inhibition on the Na+/Ca2+ Exchanger on cardiac myocytes

Increased Ca2+ in the sarcoplasm, resulting in stronger cardiac contractions

118

Calories in 1 gram of Protein

4

119

Calories in 1 gram of Carbohydrate

4

120

Calories in 1 gram of Ethanol

7

121

Calories in 1 gram of fat

9

122

Which is more abundant in Western Diet

Omega-3 or Omega-6

Omega-6

 

123

Essential Amino Acids

Phenylalanie
Valine
Tryptophan

Threonine
Isoleucine
Methionine

Histidine
Arginine
Leucine
Lysine

124

Non-Essential Amino Acids

Alanine
Asparagine
Aspartic Acid
Cysteine
Glutamic Acid
Glutamine
Glycine
Proline
Serine
Tyrosine

125

Total Energy Expenditure

Thermic Effect of Food

Phsyical Activity

Non-exercise induced thermogenesis (twitchiness)

126

Where are most nutrients absorbed?

The Duodenum

127

Where are B12 and Fat absorbed

Distal Ileum

128

What deficiences are common in Distal Ileum Resections

B12 and Fat Soluble Vitamins (D,E,A,K)

129

What disease's trade marked with excess fat in stool

Steatorrhea

130

Steatorrhea symptoms

excess fat in stool

fat malabsorption

 

131

Auto-immune disease of the bowel which causes chronic infalammation

Chron's Disease

132

Chron's Disease Treatment

Distal Ileum Resection

133

What deficiency causes macrocytic megablastic Anemia

B9 and B12

134

Rickets

Vitamin-D Deficiency

135

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137

138

139

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