MCM- TCA Cycle Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in MCM- TCA Cycle Deck (64):
1

What precursors can be broken down into Acetyl CoA

Fats, Polysaccharides, Protein

2

Where is the high energy bond in Acetyl CoA

SCoA bond

3

What carrier takes pyruvate into the mitochondria

Mitochondrial Pyruvate Carrier

4

Which enzyme decarboxylates Pyruvate

Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex

5

What does Pyruvate get Decarboxylated into

Acetyl-CoA

6

What does Pyruvate give off when getting Decarboxylated

NADH and CO2

7

In a Phosphatase Deficiency what happens to the PDC

Is always phosphorylated and inactivated

8

What happens when the PDC is inactivated

Constant Lactic Acidosis

9

Why does constant lactic Acidosis occur when the PDC is inactivated

Pyruvate gets turned into Lactate more favorably because Pyruvate cannot be Decarboxylated to Acetyl-CoA

10

Which area of the body is most affected by constant Lactic Acidosis

The CNS

11

What Negatively regulates PDC

ATP
Acetyl-CoA
NADH

12

What Positively regulates PDC

ADP
Pyruvate

13

What Positively Regulates Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Phosphatase

Calcium
And
Magnesium

14

What Positively Regulates Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase

Acetyl CoA
NADH
ATP

15

What Negatively Regulates Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Phosphatase

Acetyl CoA
NADH
ATP

16

What Negatively Regulates Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase

Pyruvate
CoA
NAD+
ADP

17

What does Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase do to the PDC

Phosphorylates it; De-Activating the Complex

18

What does Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Phosphatase do to the PDC

Dephosphorylates it; activating the Complex

19

Which 3 steps of the TCA Cycle are regulated

Steps 1,3, and 4

20

Which is the rate limiting step of the TCA Cycle

Step 3

21

What is step one of the TCA Cycle

Acetyl-CoA and Oxaloacetate Condensation to Citrate via Citrate Synthase

22

What is the second step of the TCA Cycle

Citrate to Isocitrate via Aconitase

23

What is the third step of the TCA Cycle

Isocitrate to Alpha-Ketoglutarate via Isocitrate dehydrogenase; at this point an NADH and CO2 are produced, this is the rate limiting step of the TCA Cycle

24

What is the fourth step of the TCA Cycle

Alpha-Ketoglutarate to Succinyl-CoA via Alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase; at this point NADH and CO2 are produced

25

What is the fifth step of the TCA Cycle

Succinyl-CoA to Succinate via Succinate Thiokinase; at this point GTP is produced

26

What is the sixth step of the TCA Cycle

Succinate to Fumarate; at this point FADH2 is produced

27

What is the seventh step of the TCA Cycle

Fumarate to Malate

28

What is the eighth step of the TCA Cycle

Malate to Oxaloacetate; at this point NADH is produced

29

What is the overall Production of the TCA Cycle

2 CO2
1 FADH2
1 GTP
3 NADH

30

What are two major Anaplerotic Reactions that can replenish intermediates for the TCA Cycle

1. Degradation of Amino Acids
2. Carboxylation of Pyruvate

31

Which TCA Cycle intermediate can leave to go through Gluconeogenesis

Malate

32

Which TCA Cycle intermediate can leave to go through Fatty Acid Synthesis

Citrate; also inhibits Glycolysis

33

How many membranes do Mitochondria have

2

34

Where does the Oxidative Phosphorylation take place

In the mitochondrial Intermembrane Space

35

Where foes most of the TCA Cycle and Fatty Acid Oxidation take place

The Mitochondrial Matrix

36

Where does the oxidant always go in a redox reaction

wherever the electrons are in the equation

37

The Electric Transport Chain has a by product of RNS and ROS species, what happens to them if overproduced

Damage the cells around them

38

3 Key goals of the Oxidative Phosphorylation

1. To transfer electrons from NADH + FADH2 to O2 forming H20
2. To establish a proton gradient across the inner membrane mitochondrial membrane
3. To synthesize ATP

39

Proton motor force is driven via the pumping of H+ ions from____ to the ____ ______ _____

Mitochondrial Matrix; inner-mitochondrial space

40

What are two factors that drive the Proton Motor Force in Complex 5

1. pH Gradient
2. Membrane Potential

41

What inhibitor disrupts proton transport through the Complex 5 ATPsynthase channel

Oligomyacin

42

How many Hydrogen Protons do you need to make one mole of ATP

4; 3 to create the gradient and one to pass through

43

What are the steps of the Respiratory Chain

Complex 1 and Complex 2 give electrons to Ubiquinone
Ubiquinone gives electrons to Complex 3
Complex 3 gives electrons to Cycle-chrome C
Cytochrome C gives electron to Complex 4
Complex 4 reduces O2 to H20

44

Which are the Mobile Carriers of the Respiratory Chain

Ubiquinone
Cytochrome-C

45

Where is Ubiquinone in the Respiratory Chain

Embedded into the lipid membrane

46

Where is Cytochrome C in the Respiratory Chain

In the Intermembrane Space

47

Which mobile carrier can be released when the Mitochondria is unhealthy

Cytochrome C

48

What inhibits Complex 1 of the ETC

Amytal
Rotenone
Myxothiazol
Piercidin A

49

What inhibits Complex 2 of the ETC

Malonate

50

What inhibits Complex 3 of the ETC

Antimycin

51

What inhibits Complex 4 of the ETC

CO- Carbon Monoxide
Cyanide
H2S

52

What inhibits Complex 5 of the ETC

Oligomycin

53

What is another name of Complex 5 of the ETC

ATPsynthase

54

What inhibits the formation of the proton gradient of the ETC

Dinitrophenol; DNP

55

What happens to the proton gradient if it is disrupted

Protons enter the mitochondrial matrix from the intermembrane space

56

What happens if the protons enter the intermembrane space; (3)

1. TCA Cycle and Electron to O2 are accelerated
2. ATP Synthase is inhibited
3. Heat Generation

57

How do Electrons enter the Mitochondria

Malate-Aspartate Shuttle

58

Why is the Malate-Aspartate Shuttle important

Because NADH cannot enter the Mitochondria

59

What is the goal of the Malate-Aspartate Shuttle

Move the electrons from NADH to Malate, cross the Mitochondrial Outter and Inner membrane. Once inside the inner membrane add electrons to NAD+

60

Where do the electrons go once NADH has been re-made inside of the mitochondria

Complex-1

61

What happens to the Malate inside the Mitochondria

Converted to Oxaloacetate and then Aspartate; which is transported outside the cell

62

Where does the Malate-Aspartate Shuttle Operate

Heart, Liver, and Kidneys

63

What is the goal of the Glycerophosphate Shuttle

Get the electrons from FADH2 into the Mitochondria via Glycerol-3-P

64

Where do the electrons from FADH2 join the ETC

CoQ; Ubiquinone