Flashcards in MCM LO Lecture #1 Deck (19):
Define the Central Dogma of Molecular Biology.
DNA is transcribed to RNA which is translated to protein.
Identify the four major biomolecules in monomeric and polymer forms.
Lipids- monomer=glycerol/fatty acid
Protein- Monomer=amino acid
Nucleic acid- monomer=nucleotide Polymer=DNA/RNA
Describe the chemical structure and properties of nucleic acids, nucleosides and nucleotides
Nucleoside= sugar linked to nitrogenous base
Nucleotide= Sugar +Nitrogenous base + Phosphate
Nucleic acid= nucleotides linked through phoshodiester bonds
Describe the chemical structure and properties of ribonucleic acid.
RNA- nucleotides linked together through phosphodiester bonds
Uracil instead of thymine
ribose sugar base
List, compare and contrast the different species of RNA.
mRNA-Encode Protein/ cytosol,ER
tRNA-mRNA Translation brings amino acids /cytosol,ER
rRNA-mRNA translation ribosomal subunit/cytosol,ER
snRNA-mRNA splicing get rid of introns/ nucleolus
miRNA-Endogenous mRNA silencing/inhibits translation
siRNA-triggers degredation of mrna
snoRNA-nuclear processing of rRNA
Explain complementary base pairing.
Hydrogen bods form between complimentary bases A-T two hydrogen bonds
C-G- three hydrogen bonds
Be able to calculate concentrations of nucleotides using given values.
If you have 30% T you have 30% A and 20% C= 20%G
Explain how the sequence of ribonucleic acid monomers in RNA encodes for amino acid sequence in proteins.
RNA made of of nucleotides each three nucleotides forms a codon which codes for a specific amino acid
Draw the structure of an amino acid.
Draw it bitches.
Draw a peptide bond within a polypeptide backbone.
List the amino acids which have polar side chains by their charge properties, all others can be referred to as nonpolar.
Positive= Lys, Arg, His,
Negative= Asp, Glu
Polar no charge= Asn, Gln, Pro, Cys, Ser, Thr
Draw the general formula for a monosaccharide and explain why many sugars share the same formula.
C6H12O6 aldehyde reaction
Recite how simple sugars become closed rings, are linked via a condensation reaction, and are cleaved via hydrolysis.
aldehyde reaction closes ring, condensation reaction water is product forms glycosidic bond. Hydrolysis uses water cleaves glycosidic bond.
Distinguish between the structural and functional differences of lipids, fatty acids, triacylglycerols, and phospholipids.
Fatty acids-carboy group/carbon chain
triacylgrycerol- main storage form for energy- glycerol with three fatty acid chains
phospholipid- glycerol with phosphate membranes
Compare and contrast Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes.
Prokaryotes-no membrane bound organelles/bacteria/single stranded circular DNA no nucleus
Eukaryotes-complex organisms larger/ nucleus/membrane bound organelles
Discuss the mechanisms by which viruses exist and replicate.
Virus-lytic active hijacks host cell machinery to replicate
lysogenic combines with host DNA
Understand the structure and function relationship in protein dynamics.
Structure defines function hydrophobic will fold inside hydrophilic outside
Recall the functional classes of proteins.
Enzymes- ase catalyze reactions