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Flashcards in MCM LO Lecture #1 Deck (19):

Define the Central Dogma of Molecular Biology.

DNA is transcribed to RNA which is translated to protein.


Identify the four major biomolecules in monomeric and polymer forms.

Carbohydrates- Monosaccharides/Polysaccharides
Lipids- monomer=glycerol/fatty acid
Protein- Monomer=amino acid
Nucleic acid- monomer=nucleotide Polymer=DNA/RNA


Describe the chemical structure and properties of nucleic acids, nucleosides and nucleotides

Nucleoside= sugar linked to nitrogenous base
Nucleotide= Sugar +Nitrogenous base + Phosphate
Nucleic acid= nucleotides linked through phoshodiester bonds


Describe the chemical structure and properties of ribonucleic acid.

RNA- nucleotides linked together through phosphodiester bonds
-single stranded
Uracil instead of thymine
ribose sugar base


List, compare and contrast the different species of RNA.

mRNA-Encode Protein/ cytosol,ER
tRNA-mRNA Translation brings amino acids /cytosol,ER
rRNA-mRNA translation ribosomal subunit/cytosol,ER
snRNA-mRNA splicing get rid of introns/ nucleolus
miRNA-Endogenous mRNA silencing/inhibits translation
siRNA-triggers degredation of mrna
snoRNA-nuclear processing of rRNA


Explain complementary base pairing.

Hydrogen bods form between complimentary bases A-T two hydrogen bonds
C-G- three hydrogen bonds


Be able to calculate concentrations of nucleotides using given values.

If you have 30% T you have 30% A and 20% C= 20%G


Explain how the sequence of ribonucleic acid monomers in RNA encodes for amino acid sequence in proteins.

RNA made of of nucleotides each three nucleotides forms a codon which codes for a specific amino acid


Draw the structure of an amino acid.

Draw it bitches.


Draw a peptide bond within a polypeptide backbone.

Draw it.


List the amino acids which have polar side chains by their charge properties, all others can be referred to as nonpolar.

Positive= Lys, Arg, His,
Negative= Asp, Glu
Polar no charge= Asn, Gln, Pro, Cys, Ser, Thr


Draw the general formula for a monosaccharide and explain why many sugars share the same formula.

C6H12O6 aldehyde reaction


Recite how simple sugars become closed rings, are linked via a condensation reaction, and are cleaved via hydrolysis.

aldehyde reaction closes ring, condensation reaction water is product forms glycosidic bond. Hydrolysis uses water cleaves glycosidic bond.


Distinguish between the structural and functional differences of lipids, fatty acids, triacylglycerols, and phospholipids.

Fatty acids-carboy group/carbon chain
triacylgrycerol- main storage form for energy- glycerol with three fatty acid chains
phospholipid- glycerol with phosphate membranes


Compare and contrast Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes.

Prokaryotes-no membrane bound organelles/bacteria/single stranded circular DNA no nucleus
Eukaryotes-complex organisms larger/ nucleus/membrane bound organelles


Discuss the mechanisms by which viruses exist and replicate.

Virus-lytic active hijacks host cell machinery to replicate
lysogenic combines with host DNA


Understand the structure and function relationship in protein dynamics.

Structure defines function hydrophobic will fold inside hydrophilic outside


Recall the functional classes of proteins.

Enzymes- ase catalyze reactions
non-enzymatic-receptors transport/channels


Recall the hierarchical organization of protein folding and the forces involved (covalent and noncovalent) in imparting each level of organization.

Primary- peptide bonds
secondary- alpha helix beta sheet hydrogen bonds
tertiary vanderwalls
quaternary multiple protein complexs