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Flashcards in MD From older spec Deck (36):
1

Reagents and conditions to convert benzene to sulfonic acid

conc. Sulfuric Acid
Reflux

2

Reagents and conditions to convert benzene to bromobenzene

Liquid Bromine
FeBr3 catalyst
Room Temperature

3

Reagents and conditions to convert benzene to cyclohexane

(Hydrogenation)
Hydrogen gas, 30 atm
Finely divided Nickel powder
300 Celcius

4

Reagents and conditions to convert benzene to acylbenzene

(Friedel-Crafts Acylation)
Either Acyl chloride or acid anhydride
Reflux
AlCl3 catalyst

5

Reagents and conditions to convert benzene to alkylbenzene

(Friedel-Crafts Alkylation)
chloroalkane
Reflux
AlCl3 catalyst

6

Reagents and conditions to convert benzene to nitrobenzene

conc. Nitric acid
conc. Sulfuric acid
For monosubstitution, keep below 55 Celcius

7

Reagents and conditions to convert benzene to chlorobenzene

Chlorine gas
AlCl3 catalyst (Anhydrous, ie, no water present)
Room temperature

8

Reagents and conditions to convert a primary alcohol to bromoalkane

HBr
(NaBr + c. sulphuric acid)
reflux

9

Reagents and conditions to convert a primary alcohol to chloroalkane

conc. HCl

10

Reagents and conditions to convert a primary alcohol to an alkene

Solid aluminium oxide
300 degrees
OR
c. sulphuric acid
reflux

11

Reagents and conditions to convert a primary alcohol to an aldehyde

Acidified potassium dichromate
Distillation

12

Reagents and conditions to convert an aldehyde to a carboxylic acid

Acidified potassium dichromate
reflux

13

Reagents and conditions to convert an aldehyde to a primary alcohol

NaBH4

14

Both sets of reagents and conditions to convert a primary alcohol to an ester

1: Acyl chloride OR acid anhydride
anhydrous conditions

OR

2: Carboxylic acid
c. Conc sulphuric acid catalyst
reflux

15

Reagents and conditions to convert an aldehyde to a carboxylic acid

Cr2O72-/H+ (aq)
reflux
OR
Heat with Fehling's solution

16

Reagents and conditions to convert an aldehyde to a cyanohydrin

HCN
alkaline conditions

17

Reagent to convert a carboxylic acid to a carboxylate ion

NaOH(aq)

18

Reagent for converting a carboxylate ion into a carboxylic acid

HCl(aq)

19

Reagent and catalyst used for converting a carboxylic acid into an ester

An alcohol and concentrated H2SO4 as a catalyst

20

Reagents for the conversion of a ketone into a cyanohydrin

HCN
(+alkali)

21

Reagents for the conversion of a ketone into a secondary alcohol

NaBH4

22

Conditions and reagents for hydrolysing an ester into a carboxylic acid

Reflux with aqueous avid or alkali
(Using alkali gives the salt of carboxylic acid)

23

Conditions and reagents for converting an acid anhydride into an ester

An alcohol, anhydrous conditions, reflux

24

Conditions and reagents for converting an acyl chloride into an ester

An alcohol, room temperature

25

Conditions and reagents for converting an acyl chloride into a primary amide

Concentrated NH3(aq), room temperature

26

Conditions and reagents for converting an acyl chloride into a secondary amide

A primary amine, room temperature

27

Conditions and reagents for converting either a primary or secondary amide into a carboxylic acid

Reflux with aqueous acid or alkali (Using an alkali results in the salt of the carboxylic acid)

28

Conditions and reagents for converting an alkene into a bromo-alkane

conc. HBr(aq) at room temperature

29

Conditions and reagents for converting an alkene into a dibromo-alkene

Br2 in an organic solvent at room temperature

30

Conditions and reagents for converting an alkene into an addition polymer

Trace O2(g), 200 degrees, 1500atm

31

Conditions and reagents for converting an alkene into an alcohol

c. H2SO4 followed by H2O or H2O(g) phosphoric and catalyst at 300 degrees and 60 atm

32

Conditions and reagents for converting an alkene into an alkane

H2(g) finely divided Ni at 150 degrees and 5 atm. (or Pt at room temperature and 1 atm.)

33

Conditions and reagents needed in order to convert a halogenoalkane into a primary amine

Heat in a sealed test tube with (Concentrated) Ammonia

34

Name the class of reactions which halogenoalkanes go through

Nucleophilic substitution

35

Reagent needed for the formation of ethanol from chloroethane

Water

36

Reagents and conditions needed for formation of an alcohol from a halogenoalkane

Heat under reflux with aqueous sodium hydroxide