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Flashcards in ME03 - Lipid Significance Deck (58)
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1

Importance of Lipids

_fats, oils, steroids, waxes

2

Common Physical proprties of Lipids

Relatively insoluble in water soluble in nonpolar solvents

3

Important Dietary constituents

fat-soluble vitamins Micronutrients long chain omega-3 fatty acids

4

Where are lipids stored in the body

Adipose Tissue

5

Clinical Diseases that Involve Lipids

obesity, diabetes mellitus, and atherosclerosis

6

Classification of Lipids

1. Simple lipids A. Fats- Triglycerols, Oils B. Waxes Do not have triglyceride ester of three fatty acids Fatty acid and alcohol esters 2. Complex lipids A. Phospholipids - lipid with phosphate grp Glycolipids (glycosphingolipids) - Other complex lipids - Lipoproteins 3. Precursor and derived lipids fatty acids, glycerol, steroids, other alcohols, fatty aldehydes, ketone bodies, hydrocarbons, lipid-soluble vitamins and micronutrients, and hormones

7

Fatty Acids are Aliphatic Carboxylic Acids, True or False

TRUE

8

Transport form in the plasma

Free Fatty Acids

9

Lipids that contain no double bonds

Saturated, Example: Acetic Acid (CH3COOH), Butyric(4) Valeric (5) Caproic (6) Lauric (12) Myristic (14) Palmitic (16) Stearic (18)

10

Lipids containing one or more double bonds

Unsaturated Example: Monounsaturated Polyunsaturated Eicosanoids - Eicosa (20-carbon) polyenoic fatty acids Prostanoids, Leukotrienes (LTs), Lipoxins (LXs)

11

Unsaturated fatty acids has a higher melting point than saturated fatty acids

TRUE

12

C16:0 or 16:0

Palmitic, No. of C = number of double bonds

13

C18:2 (9,12) w-carbon (methyl carbon)

Linoleic acid

14

C18:3 (9,12,15)

Linolenic acid

15

What are essential Lipids

Linoleic acid; Linolenic Acid (ADEK)

16

Essential Amino Acids needed since Linoleic and Linolenic Acid cannot be made by the human body

Histidine, Isoleucine, Leucine, Lysine, Methionine, Phenylalanine, Threonine, Tryptophan, Valine + (Arginine for infants)

17

Is there such thing as an essential carbohydrates?

NO, THERE'S NONE.

18

Types of Geometric Isomerism

cis- If the acyl chains are on the same side of the bond (oleic acid) Double bonds in fatty acids Trans- If the acyl chains are on opposite sides (elaidic acid)

19

Most naturally occuring unsaturated fatty acid

Unsaturated fatty acids that have CIS-DOUBLE BONDS

20

Disease associated with trans and saturated fatty acids

Atherosclerosis

21

Trans double bonds are ____________

Unnatural. It causes decreased fluidity (Ex. Margarine)

22

Physical and Physiologic Properties of Fatty Acids

More saturated = More solid at body temperature Polyunsaturated= Liquid to below zero dec celsius membrane lipids| Hibernators

23

What are Omega 3 Faty Acids

_-linolenic (ALA) - Found in plant oils eicosapentaenoic (EPA) - found in fish oil docosahexaenoic (DHA) - found in fish and algal oils

24

Clinical Significance of Omega 3 Fatty Acids

anti-inflammatory effects promoting the synthesis of less inflammatory prostaglandins and leukotrienes cardiovascular disease Cancer Rheumatoid arthritis Alzheimer disease

25

Main storage forms of fatty acids

Triglycerides (C1 and C3 of glyceril are not identical when viewed in three dimensions)

26

Precursor of Phospholipids, Influence membranes and acts in Signalling

Phosphatidic Acid

27

Glycerophospholipids containing choline

Lecithins (phosphatidylcholine) most abundant phospholipids of the cell membrane

28

Why is Choline important?

Important in Nervous transmission, as acetylcholine, and as store of labile methyl groups

29

Phospholipid that acts as surfactant

Dipalmitoyl Lecithin contains Type II alveolar cells preventing adherence, due to surface tension, of the inner surfaces of the lungs

30

Clinical Significance of Dipalmitoyl lecithin as surfactant

Respiratory Distress Syndrome