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Flashcards in ME01 - Introduction to Biochemistry Deck (32):
1

Why is aspirin given for treatment of Heart Disease?

Aspirin interferes with production of prostaglandins and thromboxanes. Prostaglandins mediates pain and fever. Thromboxanes produces platelet aggregation. No platelet aggregation, no clot formation, no obstruction of coronary vessels. NO HEART ATTACK.

2

What's with Carbon? What's Catenation?

Carbon binds to itself. Catenation is combing of two identical atoms.
Carbon is extremely versatile.

3

Role of Carnitine in weight loss?

Carnitine functions to transport fatty acids to the mitochondria where oxidation of fatty acids takes place,
Carnitine serves as shuttle thus helping in fat metabolism.

4

Can glutathione really whiten your skin?

Melanin is responsible for the color of skin.
Eumelanin - brown black pigment
Pheomelanin - reddish brown pigment
Glutathione results in the formation of pheomelanin. "Rosy white skin"

5

(-) charged ion

Anion

6

What defective enzyme is involved why people turn red after drinking only one bottle of beer?

Aldehyde dehydrogenase. Genetic defect in the enzyme causes the low affinity for acetaldehyde. Thus conversion from ethanol to acetate is very slow. High steady state level of acetaldehyde in the blood causes increased sensitivity to alcohol resulting to facial flushing and rapid heart rate.

7

Bond where two atoms share one or more of their electrons?

Covalent bond.

8

Bond where an ion transfers one or more electrons to another ion?

Ionic Bond.

9

Bonding Reaction - attractive forces between opposite dipoles cause water molecules to bind

Hydrogen-bonding

10

Bonding reaction - Results in substitution or addition reaction

Nucleophilic reactions. X(-) is attracted to (+) polarized carbon

11

Example of C-H compounds

Methane, Methyl Groups
Generally water insoluble

12

(+) charged ion

Cation

13

Bonding reaction - Ion formation is facilitated by partial charges on polar C-Cl bond

Heterolytic Bond Cleavage

14

Example of C-O Compounds

Carbon bonded to Oxygen.
Alcohol, Aldehyde, Ketone

15

Bonding reaction - Liberation of proton aided by the polar O-H bond of carboxylic acids

Acid ionization

16

Example of C-N compounds

Amines - (+) charged in water
Amide - uncharged in water
Rings - Purines, Pyramidines

17

Biological catalysts

Enzymes

18

What does enzyme acts on

Substrate

19

DNA Structure

double-stranded; double helix

20

Nucleic acid structure

Nitrogenous bases, Phosphate group + Deoxyribose/Ribose sugar

21

Single-ring structure

Pyrimidines (C, T and U)

22

Double - ring structures

Purines (A and G)

23

Enzyme used in replication

DNA Replication

24

Functions of Amino Acids

Transport protein, Structural protein, Enzymes, Antibodies, Cell Receptors

25

Functions of CHO

Store energy in the form of starch, Provide energy through metabolism pathway, Supply carbon for synthesis, Form structural components, Intracellular communications

26

Functions of Fatty Acids

Storage of energy in the form of fat, Membrane structures, Insulation, Synthesis of Hormones

27

Energy requiring biosynthetic pathway

Anabolism

28

Degradation of fuel molecules

Catabolism

29

Primary functions of METABOLISM

Utilization of energy, Synthesis of molecules needed, Removal of waste products

30

Entirety of an organism's hereditary information

Genome

31

Large-scale study of proteins, particularly their structures and functions

Proteomics

33

What is resonance?

When double bonds are on alternate Carbon Atoms and bonding e- move within the molecule