Flashcards in ME01 - Introduction to Biochemistry Deck (32)
Why is aspirin given for treatment of Heart Disease?
Aspirin interferes with production of prostaglandins and thromboxanes. Prostaglandins mediates pain and fever. Thromboxanes produces platelet aggregation. No platelet aggregation, no clot formation, no obstruction of coronary vessels. NO HEART ATTACK.
What's with Carbon? What's Catenation?
Carbon binds to itself. Catenation is combing of two identical atoms.
Carbon is extremely versatile.
Role of Carnitine in weight loss?
Carnitine functions to transport fatty acids to the mitochondria where oxidation of fatty acids takes place,
Carnitine serves as shuttle thus helping in fat metabolism.
Can glutathione really whiten your skin?
Melanin is responsible for the color of skin.
Eumelanin - brown black pigment
Pheomelanin - reddish brown pigment
Glutathione results in the formation of pheomelanin. "Rosy white skin"
(-) charged ion
What defective enzyme is involved why people turn red after drinking only one bottle of beer?
Aldehyde dehydrogenase. Genetic defect in the enzyme causes the low affinity for acetaldehyde. Thus conversion from ethanol to acetate is very slow. High steady state level of acetaldehyde in the blood causes increased sensitivity to alcohol resulting to facial flushing and rapid heart rate.
Bond where two atoms share one or more of their electrons?
Bond where an ion transfers one or more electrons to another ion?
Bonding Reaction - attractive forces between opposite dipoles cause water molecules to bind
Bonding reaction - Results in substitution or addition reaction
Nucleophilic reactions. X(-) is attracted to (+) polarized carbon
Example of C-H compounds
Methane, Methyl Groups
Generally water insoluble
(+) charged ion
Bonding reaction - Ion formation is facilitated by partial charges on polar C-Cl bond
Heterolytic Bond Cleavage
Example of C-O Compounds
Carbon bonded to Oxygen.
Alcohol, Aldehyde, Ketone
Bonding reaction - Liberation of proton aided by the polar O-H bond of carboxylic acids
Example of C-N compounds
Amines - (+) charged in water
Amide - uncharged in water
Rings - Purines, Pyramidines
What does enzyme acts on
double-stranded; double helix
Nucleic acid structure
Nitrogenous bases, Phosphate group + Deoxyribose/Ribose sugar
Pyrimidines (C, T and U)
Double - ring structures
Purines (A and G)
Enzyme used in replication
Functions of Amino Acids
Transport protein, Structural protein, Enzymes, Antibodies, Cell Receptors
Functions of CHO
Store energy in the form of starch, Provide energy through metabolism pathway, Supply carbon for synthesis, Form structural components, Intracellular communications
Functions of Fatty Acids
Storage of energy in the form of fat, Membrane structures, Insulation, Synthesis of Hormones
Energy requiring biosynthetic pathway
Degradation of fuel molecules
Primary functions of METABOLISM
Utilization of energy, Synthesis of molecules needed, Removal of waste products