Flashcards in Mechanics Definitions Deck (73)

Loading flashcards...

1

## Any quantity which has both magnitude and direction is a

### vector

2

## Any quantity which has magnitude only is a

### scaler

3

## Parallelogram Law states: if two vectors are represented by two adjacent sides ab and ad of a parallelogram abcd then

### the diagonal ac represents their resultant

4

## a _____ has no components at right angles to itself

### vector

5

## _______ is the distance of a body, in a given direction, from a fixed point

### displacement

6

## speed in a given direction =

### velocity

7

## the rate of change of velocity =

### acceleration

8

##
equations of motion =

V=_+_ _

s=_ _+1/2_ _^-

V^2= _^- + _ _ _

###
V=u + at

s= ut +1/2at^2

v^2= U^2 + 2as

9

## a body has acceleration if it is either its _____ or its _____ is changing

### speed or direction

10

## ignoring air resistance/ in a vacuum, the acceleration of a falling body due to _____ is always the same

### gravity

11

## gravity always acts _____ towards ____ ____ __ ___ ____

### downwards towards the centre of the earth

12

## a body at its highest point has zero _____ but not zero ______

###
velocity but not acceleration

//acceleration due to gravity still operates

13

## Give an example of a scaler quantity

###
distance

time

mass

14

## Give an example of a vector quantity

###
velocity

force

15

## anything which changes , or tends to change, the motion of a body in magnitude or direction =

### a force

16

## an unbalanced force causes

### motion

17

## the force with which the earth attracts a body is called the

### weight of the body

18

## the mass of a body is

### the amount of matter in it

19

## the product of mass and velocity of a body=

### momentum

20

## Newtons first law motion

### a body remains at rest or moving with uniform velocity unless an unbalanced force acts on it

21

## Newtons second law motion

### the rate of change of momentum is proportional to the force acting upon it AND takes place in the direction of said force

22

## Newtons third law motion

###
to every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.

//Action and reaction never happen on the same body//

23

## equation for force

### force = mass x acceleration

24

## equation for weight

### weight = mass x g

25

## A newton is the force which gives ....

### an acceleration of 1ms/2 to a mass of 1kg

26

## the principle of conservation of momentum states

### if no external force acts on a system of colliding bodies the total momentum of the bodies remains constant

27

## impulse= change in momentum =

###
force x time

or

Ft = mv - mu

28

## centre of gravity

### the point at which the whole weight of the body appears to act is called its centre of gravity

29

## the principle of stable design is to have

### a low centre of gravity and a wide base

30

## a lever is

### a rigid body which is free to rotate about a fixed point called the fulcrum

31

## the moment of a force about a point is

### force x the perpendicular distance from the point to the line of action of the force

32

## the principle of moments states

### that when a body is in equilibrium the sum of the clockwise moments about any point is equal to the sum of the anticlockwise moments about that point

33

## the two conditions for equilibrium are

###
1. the principle of momentum must apply

2. the vector sum of the forces in any direction is zero

34

## the moment of a couple is the product of

### one force x the perpendicular distance between them

35

## work =

### force x distance (moved in the direction of the force)

36

## a joule is the work done

### when a force of one newton moves its point of application 1m

37

## potential energy is

### is energy due to position or mechanical condition

38

## equation for potential energy

### Ep = mgh

39

## Kinetic energy is

### energy due to motion

40

## equation for kinetic energy

### Ek = 1/2 mv^2

41

## the law of conservation states that

### energy can neither be created nor destroyed; it simply changes from one form to another

42

## power is the amount

### of work done per second

43

## 1 watt =

### 1 joule s^-1

44

## friction is a force which

### opposes relative motion between two bodies in contact

45

## lubricants

### reduce friction

46

## viscosity is

### resistance to flow in fluids

47

## a sphere falling through a fluid has three forces acting on it. List these three forces

###
1. Its weight W acting downwards

2. An upthrust U due to displaces liquid

3. A frictional force F acting upwards

//W and U are constant. As the sphere begins to fall, it accelerates but, as its velocity increases, F also increases until U + F = W and the net force acting on the sphere is zero.

It now continues to fall with a uniform/ constant velocity known as terminal velocity

48

## the mass of unit volume of a substance is called its

### density

49

## pressure=

### force per unit area

50

## the unit of pressure is the

###
pascal

1 Pa = 1Nm^2

51

##
pressure in a fluid depends on three things;

(give equation)

###
depth, density and acceleration due to gravity

P = pgh

52

## Archimedes' Principle:

### A body partly or wholly immersed in a fluid experiences a upthrust equal to the weight of the fluid displaced

53

## law of flotation:

### A floating body displaces its own weight of fluid

54

## the angular velocity is the rate of change of

###
angle in radians per second,

ω = θ/t

55

## The periodic time equation

### T= 2π/ω

56

## Linear Velocity equation

###
arc/t = rθ/t = rω

v = rω

57

## Acceleration towards the centre of a circle equation

### a = rω^2 or a = v^2/r

58

## the force necessary to keep a body moving in a circle is a

###
centripetal force acting towards the centre of the circle.

F = mrω^2

or F = mv^2/r

59

## The Law of gravitation;

###
the force of attraction between any two bodies is proportional to their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them

f ∝ (M1 M2)/d^2 ⇒ F = (GM1M2)/d^2

mg =GmM/d^2 ⇒ g/G = M/ d^2 or g = GM/d^2

60

## Give Kepler's Three laws of planetary motion

###
1. The Planets move in elliptical orbits round the sun as one focus.

2. The line joining the sun and the planet sweeps out equal areas in equal time intervals

3. The square of the periodic time of a planet is proportional to the cube of its mean distance from the sun. // GmM/r^2 = mrω^2 = mr (4π^2/T^2) ⇒ T^2 = 4π^2r^2/GM//

61

## Give Kepler's Third Law mathematically

### GmM/r^2 = mrω^2 = mr (4π^2/T^2) ⇒ T^2 = 4π^2r^2/GM

62

## For the signal of a satellite to be transmitted from earth to said satellite and back the satellite must always be above the same point on the earth. i.e it mus have the same period as the earth - 24 hours. The satellite is said to be

### geostationary or parking orbit

63

## Hooke's Law;

### Provided a spring is not extended beyond its elastic limit, the extension is proportional to its load.

64

## give the mathematical definition of simple harmonic motion ( S.H.M )

###
a = -ω^2s

// the minus indicates that the body begins to retard as it passes through 0, the centre of its motion

65

## when a particle is undergoing S.H.M its acceleration is

### maximum when its displacement is maximum

66

## Give an example where a body has acceleration but zero velocity

### a body that has been thrown vertically upwards and is at its greatest height.

67

## When does a body travelling at constant speed have an acceleration?

### when it is changing direction

68

## Why is it easier to turn a nut using a longer spanner rather than a shorter one?

### The distance from the effort to the fulcrum is greater, giving a greater turning effect.

69

## State the law of flotation

### a floating body displaces its own weight of fluid.

70

## A container contains 5kg of water. if the area of the base of the container in 0.5m ^2, what is the pressure on the base?

### P = F/A = (5 x 9.8)/0.5 = 98 Pa

71

## What is the relationship between the acceleration due to gravity, g and the distance from the centre of the earth?

### g ∝ 1/d^2

72

## A particle travels at constant speed of 10ms-1 in a circle of radius 2m. What is its angular velocity?

### v = rω ⇒ ω = v/r = 10/2 =5 radians per second

73