Flashcards in Mechanics of Resp Part 1 - Quiz 2 Deck (25):
What are the primary goals of the respiration system?
Distribute air and blood flow for gas exchange.Provide oxygen to cells in body tissue.Remove carbon dioxide for body.Maintain homeostasis for metabolic needs.
What are the two ventilation phases?
Inspiration and expiration.
What is the blood volume within the lungs?
500 mL (10% of total blood volume.
What factors are required to alter lung volumes?
- Respiratory muscles; - Tissue elastance and resistance;- Distribution of air movement within the lungs(resistance within the airway:- Overcoming surface tension within alveoli,
What transmits motor stimulation to the diaphragm?
Phrenic nerve (C3,4,5)
What transmits motor stimulation to the external intercostal muscles?
Intercostal nerves (T 1-11)
How much does diaphragm move down during inspiration?
How much does diaphragm move down during a forced inspiration?
The external intercostal muscles are responsible for what percentage of inspiration?
What is lost when external intercostal muscle lose innervation?
Sensation of inhalation is decreased.
What muscles assist with forced inspiration during periods of stress or exercise?
Scalene muscle and Sternocleidomastoid muscle.
What muscle are needed for active expiration?
Rectus abdominus/abdominal oblique muscles and Internal intercostals muscles.
What is transpulmonary pressure?
Pressure difference between the alveolar pressure and pleural pressure on outside of lungs.
What is the visceral pleura?
Thin serosal membrane that envelopes the lobes of the lungs.
What is the parietal pleura?
Lines the inner surface of the chest wall, lateral mediastinum, and most of the diaphragm.
What effect does the lymphatic drainage have on the pleura?
Constant suction on the pleura (-5 cmH2)
Is the pressure of the fluid in the space between the lung pleura (visceria) and chest wall pleura (parietal) negative or positive?
What happens if the pleural pressure becomes positive in the lung?
Lung collapse (Pneumothorax, hemothorax, chylothorax.
What is the average functional residual capacity?
True of False: Spirometry can measure residual volume (RV).
True or False: The functional residual capacity (FRC) and total lung capacity (TLC) cannot be measure by spirometry alone.
What can determine the functional residual capacity and total lung capacity?
Helium dilution; Nitrogen washout; Body plethysmography.
What are the functions of respiration?
Mechanics of pulmonary ventilation, diffusion of O2 & CO2 between alveoli and blood; transport of O2 and CO2 to and from tissues; regulation of ventilation and respiration.
Where do the scalene muscle attach and what is their function?
Attach at the cervical spine to apical rib and elevate the first two ribs during forced inspiration.