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Flashcards in med surg Deck (60)
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1

signs of increasing ICP

1.Cushing Triad
-HTN,bradycardia, widening pulse pressure
2.Pailledema
-pressure agaisnt the the optic disc causing fleeting disturbances in vision, headache, and vomiting
3.Slurred speech
4.Decoriticate/Decerebrate

2

how much water is retained per 1 kg gained

1 L

3

late signs of fluid volume deficit

1.oliguria
2.decreased CVP
3.flat neck veins

4

where can you check for skin tenting

1.forehead
2.sterum

5

what are the isotonic solutions

1.NS
2.LR
3.D5W

6

pulmonary edema assessment

1.cough
2.dyspnea
3.crackles

7

hypokalemia manifestation

1.muscle weakness
2.fatigue
3.flat or inverted T wave
3.Decreased bowel motility
4.irritability/confusion
5.Paresthesia

8

Hyperkalemia manifestations

1.muscle twitching and paresthesia (early)
2.asceding muscle weakness (late)
3.peaked t waves and widening QRS
4.increased motility

9

hyponatremia manifestations

1.headache
2.anorexia, n/v
3.muscle cramps/ twitchig
4.seizures
5.lethargy

10

non pharmacological treatment for nausea

ginger tea

11

2.Irritable bowel syndrome diet

1.increase fiber (atleast 30 g)

12

Right sided stroke

1.Visual spaital deficit
2.One sided neglect

13

metformin admin

take it once daily at night with your evening meal. GI tract moves slower during night therefore more medication gets absorbed.

14

s/s of hemolytic reaction

backpain and headache

15

what is the main adverse effect of suctioning

can cause a vasovagal attack. if this happens stop and oxygenate

16

bladder irrigation

1.always use NS
2.color of urine should slowly progress to an amber color.
3.initial void may be uncomfortable, red and contain clots
4.if urine isnt clear or there is still blood clots by day 4 call doctor
5.if there is bright red blood with clots then increase the rate
6.if cath becomes obstructed flush with a 50ml syringe
7.*sodium can be absorbed through bladder irrigation
8.tell patient not to push pee as it can cause muscle spasms that lead to more bleeding

17

Walker teaching

WWS
walker
weak leg
strong leg
6-8 inches

18

crutches

1.6 inches lateral of each foot. Also 6 inches in front of each foot
2.never bear weight on axilla
3.elbows flexed at 30 degrees

19

client education- dumping syndrome

1.lay down after meal as it will slow the movement of food within the intestine
2.limit the amount of fluid ingested at one time. Dont drink fluid within 1 hour after a meal
3.low to moderate carbs everything else high. Carbs move fast as they are easily digested
4.avoid milk, sugars as they can cause diarrhea
5.small frequent meals
6.Pernicious anemia is common (take vit b12)

20

signs of pernicious anemia

1.fatigue
2.parasthsia
3.depressed reflexes
4.smooth red tongue
5.SOB

21

what is pernicious anemia usually caused by

lack of intrinsic factor which is a protein secreted by the stomach which helps the ileum absorb B12

22

crohns disease signs/s

1.diarrhea and colicky pain often right lower quadrant
2.megaloblatic (pernicious) anemia
3.UTI due to fistula
4.high pitched bowel sounds with steatorrhea

23

crohns treatment

1.fluids and bowel rest during acute attack
2.low fiber diet for long term treatment

24

Ulcerative colitis

1.toxin megacolon is common (dilated colon which leads to no peristalsis leading to a giant poop forming that may require surgery to remove)
2. seen in the descending colon and rectum
3.common to see joint pain/arthritis

25

how do you treat ulcerative colitis

1.low fiber or NPO for acute attacks
2.sulfasalazine (anti-inflammatory for autoimmune type diseases)
-will cause yellowish orange discoloration of skin and urine
-photosensitivity so wear sun block

26

Interventions for ulcerative colitis

1.NPO is priority (they will still have 20+ stools per day)
2.if only in rectum treat with sitz bath of witch hazel

27

ulcerative colitis teaching

1.high protein and calorie with low fiber diet
2.avoid caffeine and alochol and take multiviatmins that contain iron
3.small frequent meals

28

Diverticulitis

1.Usually in the sigmoid colon LLQ,
2.put on high fiber high fluids diet to prevent attacks but during attack put on low fiber diet and probably NPO if severe
3.encourage mild exercise like walking to decrease constipation but no strenous exercise

29

where to not put heat therapy

1.do not put over areas that have metal devices such as pacemakers to avoid deep tissues burns
2.do not put on the abdomen of a pregnant women
3.bony prominences are more sensitive to heat application
4.do not put under an immobile client

30

cholecystitis

1.RUQ pain radiating to right shoulder
2.Pain with deep inspiration during rigt subcostal palpation
3.jaundice, decreased calcium levels, steatorrhea, dark urine, pruritus
4.low fat diet, avoiding gas forming foods, and small meals are better tolerated