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Flashcards in Pharmacology Deck (95)
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1

average peak times for PO, IM, IV

1-2 hours
1 hour
30 mins

2

what is a trough level and when is it drawn

the lowest concentration of the drug obtained 15 mins prior to giving the next scheduled dose.

3

how to prevent infiltration and how to treat

Prevent by using the smallest catheter possible.
Treatment: 1. stop infusion
2.cold compress
3.elevate
4.new IV in opposite extremity

4

how to treat extravasation

1.stop infusion
2.aspirate drug if possible
3.cold compress

5

Prevention and treatment of Phlebitis

Prevent
1.rotate site every 96 hours (5 days)
2.avoid excessive activity with extremity
Treatment
1.stop
2.Hot compress
3.new IV in opposite extremity

6

embolus treatment

1.apply tourniquet high on extremity to limit venous flow
2.prepare for xray removal

7

complications of CVC

1.pneumothorax
-give oxygen
2.Air embolism
-place in left lateral trendelenburg and administer oxygen
3.Lumen occlusion
-use a 10 mL syringe with a pulsing motion
4.Infection
-change entire infusion system, get cultures

8

how to prevent air embolism during CVC therapy

1.have client lie flat when changing set or connectors
2.ask client to perform valsalva

9

complications associated with PICC line

1.catheter occlusion
-reposition arm
-confirm blood return
-flush regularly
2.Catheter dislodges
-watch for discomfort in jaw, chest, or ears
3.Phlebitis
-apply heat
4.Catheter embolism
5.Infection

10

TPN

1.need to verify with another nurse
2.daily weights and I&Os
3.accu check every 4-6 hours
4.dressing change every 3 days
5.tubing change every 24 hours
6.admin D10W if TPN is temporarily unavaiable to prevent hypoglycemia

11

Antidotes
1.acetaminophen
2.benzodiazepine
3.curare
4.Cyanide poisioning

1.Acetylcysteine
2.flumazenil
3.edrophonium
4.methylene blue

12

More antidotes
1.Digitalis
2.Ethylene poisioning
3.Heparin and enoxaparin
4.Iron

1.Digoxin immune FAB
2.Fomepizole
3.protamine sulfate
4.deferoxamine

13

More antidotes
1.Lead
2.Magnesium sulfate
3.Narcotics
4.Warfarin

1.Succimer
2.Calcium gluconate 10%
3.Naloxone
4.Phytonadione (Vitamin K)

14

Theraputic drug levels
1. Aminophylline
2.Carbamazepine
3.Digoxin
4.Gentamicin

1.10-20 mcg/mL
2.5-12 mcg/mL
3. 0.5 - 0.8 ng/mL
4. 5-10 mcg/mL

15

theraputic drug levels
1.Lidocaine
2.Lithium
3.Magnesium sulfate
4.Phenobarbital

1. 1.5 - 5.0 mcg/mL
2. 0.4 - 1.4 mEq/L
3. 4 - 8 mg/dL
4. 10-30 mcg/mL

16

Theraputic drug levels
1.phenytoin
2.theophylline
3.Tobramycin

1. 10-20 mcg/mL Salicylate: 100 to 250 mcg/mL
2. 10-20 mcg/mL
3. 5-10 mcg/mL

17

Trough levels
1.gentamicin
2.Tobramycin
3.Vancomycin

1. 1-2 mcg/mL
2.1-2 mcg/ml
15-20 mcg/mL

18

drug suffixes
1.calcium channel blockers

2.erectrile dysfunction
3.anesthetics
4. ACE inhibitors
5.Benzo
6.Antilipidemic
7.Corticosteroids
8.Bblockers

1.dipine
2.afil
3.caine
4.pril
5.pam, lam
6.statin
7.asone/ solone
8.olol

19

Drug suffixes
1.Penicillin
2.Oral hypoglycemics
3.PPIs
4.antivirals
5.thrombolytics
6.antiemetics
7.bronchodilators
8.anticoagulants

1.cillin
2.ide
3.prazole
4.vir
5.ase
6.azine
7.phylline
8.arin

20

Drug suffixes
1.antiulcers
2.antihistamine
3.antibiotic
4.aminoglycoside
5.Antibiotic
6.TCAs
7.SSRIs

1.dine
2.zine
3.cycline
4.mycin
5.floxacin
6.tyline
7.pram/ ine

21

what is the number 1 cause for venous spasm and how do fix it

the infusion is to cold therefore warm it.

22

who should avoid hot tubs and saunas

HTN patients

23

action of ACE inhibitors and ARBs

1.blocks the conversion of angiotensin 1 to angiotensin 2
2.blocks the binding of angiotensin 2 to receptors

24

uses of ACE and ARBS

1.HTN
2.HF
3.MI
4.diabetic nephropathy

25

ACE precautions

1.use with caution if diuretic therapy is in place
2.monitor potassium levels

26

side effects ACE inhibitors

1.nonproductive cough
2.angioedema
3.should not be used after first trimester of pregnancy

27

interventions ace inhibitors

1.captopril should be taken 1 hr BEFORE meals
2.monitor BP
3.treat angioedema with 0.5 mL of 1:1000 epi administered SubQ

28

prototypes calcium channel blockers

1.nifedipine
2.verapail
3.diltiazem
4.amlodipine

29

Calcium channel blocker uses

1.angina and HTN
2.verapamil and diltiazem may be used for Afib, A flutter, or SVT

30

main sign of salicylsim

1.tinnitus
2.sweating
3.headache
4.dizziness