Flashcards in Med Surg - Exam3- Mandy- ch49 lecture Deck (171)
Islets of Langerhans
hormone secreting portion of pancreas
alpha & beta cells
Alpha cells: produce Glucagon in response to low blood glucose levels
Beta cells: produce Insulin in response to high blood glucose-
glucose metabolism, glucose transport across cell membranes, and synthesis and storage of glucose, fats, and proteins
Glukegone hormone to increase blood sugar level. When low sugar, protein ingestion, and exercise
storage of glucose in liver
transport glucose into cell and incorporate into protein in muscle, glycogen in liver, and fat trigliceride to adipose tissue.
Fat(/adipose /’edapous/ tissue), glycogen, and protein are the three format of energy storage in human body.
counter regulatory hormones to insulin
: glucagon, epinephrine, growth hormone, and cortisol...raise blood glucose levels
counter regulatory hormones (of insulin)
*Respond to a decline in blood glucose level during fasting or overnight
*Stimulate lipolysis, gluconeogenesis, and glycogenolysis processes
Gluconeogenesis is the process of synthesizing glucose in the body from non-carbohydrate sources such as protein and fat.
Blycogenolysis - is the breakdown of glycogen to glucose.
Lipolysis: break down of lipid (fatty tissues) to fatty acid and glycerol.
Diabetes Mellitus (DM)
A chronic multisystem disease related to
Abnormal insulin production
Impaired insulin utilization
abnormal insulin production in
D1 and D2; insulin resistance due to fatigue/B cell defect
Pancreas of DM type 1
Autoimmune destruction of B cells
Autoantibodies present for months/years before clinical symptoms
No production of insulin
Pancreas of DM type 2
Defective B cell insulin secretion
Insulin resistance stimulates insulin secretion
Eventually exhausting B cells
Liver of DM type 2
Excess glucose production.
Inapprpriate regulation of glucose production
Adipose tissue of DM type 2
Decrease in Adiponectin and Increase in Leptin: results in altered glucose and fat metabolism
Muscle tissue of DM type 2
Defective insulin receptors
Decreased uptake of glucose results in hyperglycemia
all you really need to know is that DM2 involves...
metabolic problems in muscle, liver (glucose higher), and adipose tissue (high cholesterol)
TYPE 1 DM
Autoimmune disease, peak onset by 20 years old
Rapid & Acute
Classic symptoms: Polyuria, Polydipsia, Polyphagia
Others: weight loss, weakness, fatigue
TYPE 2 DM
*Major contributor for heart, renal disease, and stroke
*Associated with metabolic syndrom
*Asymptomatic in the early stage
*May have classic symptoms of type 1
*Nonspecific symptoms are common: fatigue, prolonged wound healing, visual changes
metabolic syndrome characterized by
-Insulin resistance, elevated insulin levels
-↑ triglycerides & Low-density lipoproteins, ↓High-density lipoproteins
removes excess cholesterol from the body
LDL builds up on arterial walls and hardens to create plaque, constricting flow and contributing to heart disease.
storage of fat for energy use
for construction of cell and hormone
Hyperglycemia causes a diabetic to produce
a high volume of glucose containing urine