Med Surg - Exam3- Mandy- ch49 lecture Flashcards Preview

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1

Islets of Langerhans

hormone secreting portion of pancreas
alpha & beta cells

2

alpha cells

Alpha cells: produce Glucagon in response to low blood glucose levels

3

beta cells

Beta cells: produce Insulin in response to high blood glucose-

4

insulin facilitates

glucose metabolism, glucose transport across cell membranes, and synthesis and storage of glucose, fats, and proteins

5

Glucagon

Glukegone hormone to increase blood sugar level. When low sugar, protein ingestion, and exercise

6

Glycogen

storage of glucose in liver

7

Insulin function

transport glucose into cell and incorporate into protein in muscle, glycogen in liver, and fat trigliceride to adipose tissue.
Fat(/adipose /’edapous/ tissue), glycogen, and protein are the three format of energy storage in human body.

8

counter regulatory hormones to insulin

: glucagon, epinephrine, growth hormone, and cortisol...raise blood glucose levels

9

counter regulatory hormones (of insulin)

*Respond to a decline in blood glucose level during fasting or overnight
*Stimulate lipolysis, gluconeogenesis, and glycogenolysis processes

10

Gluconeogenesis

Gluconeogenesis is the process of synthesizing glucose in the body from non-carbohydrate sources such as protein and fat.

11

Blycogenolysis

Blycogenolysis - is the breakdown of glycogen to glucose.

12

Lypolysis

Lipolysis: break down of lipid (fatty tissues) to fatty acid and glycerol.

13

Diabetes Mellitus (DM)

A chronic multisystem disease related to
Abnormal insulin production
Impaired insulin utilization
Or both

14

abnormal insulin production in

D1 and D2; insulin resistance due to fatigue/B cell defect

15

Pancreas of DM type 1

Autoimmune destruction of B cells
Autoantibodies present for months/years before clinical symptoms
No production of insulin

16

Pancreas of DM type 2

Defective B cell insulin secretion
Insulin resistance stimulates insulin secretion
Eventually exhausting B cells

17

Liver of DM type 2

Excess glucose production.
Inapprpriate regulation of glucose production

18

Adipose tissue of DM type 2

Decrease in Adiponectin and Increase in Leptin: results in altered glucose and fat metabolism

19

Muscle tissue of DM type 2

Defective insulin receptors
Insulin resistant
Decreased uptake of glucose results in hyperglycemia

20

all you really need to know is that DM2 involves...

metabolic problems in muscle, liver (glucose higher), and adipose tissue (high cholesterol)

21

TYPE 1 DM

Autoimmune disease, peak onset by 20 years old
Insulin dependent
Rapid & Acute
Classic symptoms: Polyuria, Polydipsia, Polyphagia
Others: weight loss, weakness, fatigue

22

TYPE 2 DM

*Major contributor for heart, renal disease, and stroke
*Associated with metabolic syndrom
*Asymptomatic in the early stage
*May have classic symptoms of type 1
*Nonspecific symptoms are common: fatigue, prolonged wound healing, visual changes

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metabolic syndrome characterized by

-Insulin resistance, elevated insulin levels
-↑ triglycerides & Low-density lipoproteins, ↓High-density lipoproteins
-Hypertension

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HDL

removes excess cholesterol from the body

25

Excessive LDL

LDL builds up on arterial walls and hardens to create plaque, constricting flow and contributing to heart disease.

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Triglyceride

storage of fat for energy use

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Cholesterol

for construction of cell and hormone

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HDL for

transportation

29

Hyperglycemia causes a diabetic to produce

a high volume of glucose containing urine

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other types of DM

prediabetes
gestational
secondary