Digital Media: Curran and Seaton.
Neophiliacs argue that new technology is good for democracy. Monitoring and criticism of the powerful and organising protest groups is easier.
Decline of community.
Digital Media: Boyle.
Digitalisation means it is easier to connect technologies. Digital convergence led to social and economic convergence. Emergence of new markets.
No longer constrained by television schedules, greater choice.
Digital Media: Seaton.
Internet generates political activism. Can revitalise democracy. Like-minded people are given a voice and a chance to create social change.
Digital Media: Cornford and Robbins.
Interactivity and media have improved due to old technology.
Growth of New Media: Boyle.
New media often associate with young people. Age gap is declining.
Anxieties of impact of media on children:
Pornography, terrorist propaganda, cyberbullying, grooming.
Growth of New Media: Cornford and Robbins.
Do not believe new media will be more democratic. Corporations exert more power. Digital class divide feeds into inequalities. Biggest grievances, least likely.to have internet access.
New technologies provide more choice.
Growth of New Media: Keen.
No governing moral code.
Social networks are vehicles for narcissistic self-broadcasting.
User generated sites are biased and unreliable.
Lies and trolling are the norms.
Contributes to illiteracy and short attention spans.
Ownership and Control: Pluralism.
Market dominates media content.
Whale: diversity of media products means it is nearly impossible for owners to influence content. Media owners lack time to think about the details of running a business due to struggle with trade and investment.
Ownership and Control: Marxism.
Instrumental: media owners manipulate and control the proletariat. Existing economic system remains unchallenged.
Hegemonic: owners have little power. Professionals produce media for profit.
The Frankfurt School: media owners control working class. Bread and circuses approaches shows media output is entertainment oriented.
Ownership and Control: Postmodernism (Baudrillard, Trowler, Levene).
Individual consumers own and control content in the media.
Baudrillard: hard to distinguish between reality and media (hyperreality) due to too much online information.
Undermines power of truth and objectivity.
Media is subject to interpretation.
Trowler: messages are polysemic (interpreted in many different ways), difficult for one message to be more powerful than another.
Levene: greater choice in access to a greater selection of media making it easier to challenge or reject narratives.
Ownership and Control: Patterns of Ownership (Curran, Bagdikian).
Curran: press barons owned most newspapers. Greater economic control. Most newspapers are owned by individuals.
Bagdikian: patterns of merging and taking over small businesses.
Ownership and Control: Extent to which owners control content.
GUMG: media support the interests of capitalists. Hegemony is an accidental by product of white, middle class, male journalists and broadcasters.
Consensus views are generally unthreatening and appeal to the majority. Views outside of this are ‘extremist’, receive little coverage and are ridiculed. Profits from consensus views. If media is not consumed, advertises will refuse contracts and deprive companies of money. Avoids inequalities.
Global Culture and Global Media: Pluralism.
No mass culture due to media and technology. More choice and knowledge. Harder for one set of ideas to dominate.
Global Culture and Global Media: Marxism.
Popular culture maintains ideological hegemony and power of dominant social class. Lulled into uncritical, undemanding passivity, less likely to challenge dominant ideas. Globalisation increases consumption.
Global Culture and Global Media: Strinati.
Distinction between high and popular culture is blurred. Greater consumer choice. Boundaries between different cultures creates a pick and mix culture. Media saturated audiences are media literate.
There cannot be a single truth.
Reliability and comfort in media led virtual lives.
Global Culture and Global Media: Lechner and Boli.
If certain activities become more globalised, people will have more in common.
Effects of Globalisation: Flew.
Spread of global media has led to cultural imperialism. American culture has become dominant. Focus on profit rather than quality.
Effects of Globalisation: Fenton.
Brands sold on a global scale. Beliefs are forced into everyone.
Cultural homogenisation: a variety of cultures blended into one.
Some reject the input from other cultures.
Effects of Globalisation: Storey.
Mass culture is commercial culture.
Neo Gramscian Hegemony Theory: popular culture as a struggle between resistance and forces of incorporating interests of dominant groups.
Embrace entertainment but must protect political understanding and reject anti intellectualism. Media helps create and communicate in cultural practices.
Embracing a globalised popular culture may lead to fewer issues for oppressed groups.
Social Construction of News: Jones.
Print media holds those in power to account and provide a space for competing views to be aired.
Fair, neutral and balanced.
Social Construction of News: Galtung and Ruge.
Reference to elite people or elite nations. Continuity/composition. Extraordinaires. Negativity. Threshold.
Brighton and Foy: limited representation, assumes consensus between all journalists, news values may no longer exist.
Social Construction of News: Davies.
Churnalists: churning out facts or stories from government spin doctor’s, public relations companies and corporate interests.
Influence of Audience: GUMG.
News is the product of middle class backgrounds. Unconsciously sides with the powerful and the rich: more in common. Do not welcome radical changes from the poor and the powerless. Trade unions are demanding but managers give offers.
Influence of Audience: Jewkes.
Problem groups are newsworthy. Audiences share their concerns, believed they were giving the public what they want. Different levels of deviance.
Age: Wayne et al.
82% of the focus on young people were as victims or perpetrators.
1% was from the perspective of young people.
Image of youth encouraging dear and condemnation.
Distracts people from issues such as housing and unemployment.
Sexist double standard, older women less likely to be on television.
Biggs: older people represented as forceful, vague and difficult.
Signorelli: biased towards middle aged people. Children represented as innocent. Youth represented as social problem.
McRobbie: young girls presented as passive. Girl power used to free girls.
Social Class: Newman.
Focus on the lifestyles of wealthy and privileged.
Focus on consumer items only affordable by the wealthy.
Not enough coverage for inequalities.
A lifestyle to aim for.
Limited coverage of working class.
50% of news stories dealt with young black people committing crimes.
Ethnicity: Van Dijk.
Representations of black people: criminals, a threat, unimportant.
Moral panics around: immigrants, refugees, asylum seekers, Muslims.
Some media suggests that lives of white people are more important.
People living in high ethnic minority areas will be less likely to believe any negative stereotypes.
Women should adhere to an ideal in terms of looks, shape, weight and size.
Encouraged to put this central to their personal happiness rather than competing with men for positions of power, creating a false consciousness.
Deters them from making the most of available opportunities.
Sexuality: Batchelor et al.
Homosexuality is barely integrated into mainstream representation.
Appears in the form of anxiety or embarrassment.
Target for teasing/bullying.
Lesbianism completely invisible.
Identification of recurring disability stereotypes:
Sinister and evil.
Incapable of participating in community life.
Rarely presented as normal. Seen as unhealthy or tragic. Media presentations reflect prejudice of able bodied. Fear of the unknown.
Changes in Representation: Connell.
No single, unchanging form of masculinity. Culturally dominant form of masculinity. Heterosexual is connected to marriage.
Homosexuality is seen as the nullification of masculinity.
Mass media sustains hegemonic masculinity.
Subject to change due to crisis of masculinity.
Changes in Representation: McRobbie.
Media projected towards young women. Popular feminism promotes girl power. Traditional feminism belongs to an older generation. Sexuality inequality through ‘shagging, snogging and having a good time’.
Popular feminism is mainstream.
Sociologists: Digital Media.
Curran and Seaton, Boyle, Seaton, Cornford and Robbins.
Sociologists: Growth of New Media.
Boyle, Cornford and Robbins, Keen.
Sociologists: Ownership and Control.
Pluralism, Marxism, Postmodernism, Curran and Bagdikian, GUMG.
Sociologists: Global Culture and Global Media.
Pluralism, Marxism, Strinati, Lechner and Boli.
Sociologists: Effects of Globalisation.
Flew, Fenton, Storey.
Sociologists: Social Construction of News.
Jones, Galtung and Ruge, Davies.
Sociologists: Influence of Audience.
Sociologists: Changes in Representation.