Positives of crime: Boundary maintenance. Reaffirms existing values. Functional rebels (Nelson Mandela). Stronger community cohesion (riots).
Negatives of crime:
Anomie (weak/unclear collective conscious).
Egoism (collective conscious too weak to restrain selfish desires).
Western culture values competition, wealth and success.
In order to achieve these goals, there are five responses:
Conformity (limited success)
Innovation (uses crime)
Ritualism (regulated by their job)
Retreatism (goals rejected, turn to drugs/alcohol)
Rebellion (other goals are substituted).
Functionalism: AK Cohen.
Two functions of deviance:
Acts as a safety valve.
Shows that an aspect of society is dysfunctional.
Difficult to accept a single consensus.
Overemphasises collective conscious.
Does not explain all crimes.
Does not.explain why some are more prone to deviance.
Subcultural: AK Cohen.
Lower class boys suffer status frustration. They lack the same means to achieve goals and feel inadequate. In response, they form antischool subcultures.
Subcultural: Cloward and Ohlin.
Delinquency drift - in and out of subcultures.
Class of subcultures:
Criminal: role models, follow a hierarchy.
Conflict: gangs, gain respect through violence.
Retreatist: double failures, turn to drugs and alcohol.
Does not explain utilitarian crime or female delinquency.
Difficult to nearly categorise crimes.
Assumes the different classes share the same goals.
Criminal law benefits the ruling class.
Legitimised use of violence through laws/police/army.
Capitalism emphasised by the criminal justice system and media.
Tax evaders are warned, benefit fraud is prosecuted.
Low prosecution of white collar crimes.
Laws threatening corporations are rarely passed or not enforced. Corporate crimes are more harmful than street crimes but less prosecuted. Easier to prosecute individuals.
Criminogenic capitalism. Crime is expected in capitalist societies.
Inadequate welfare provision encourages crimes.
Marxism: Taylor, Walton and Young.
Should consider wider aspects of crime. Crime is a conscious and deliberate choice.
Ignores non-class inequalities.
Overpredicts working class crime.
Japan and Switzerland are capitalist societies with low crime rates.
Corporations are prosecuted (Wolf of Wall Street).
Primary deviance - rule breaking.
Secondary deviance - consequence of the response of others.
Disintegrative shaming - removed from society.
Reintegrative shaming - emphasis on act over individual.
Demonisation of whole groups through the media leads to moral panics and formation of subcultures.
Typification of a criminal: poor, single parent, working class, ethnic minority. Middle class parents can negotiate children out of trouble.
Blames police/doctors as agents of inequality rather than the source (ruling class).
Right Realist: Overview.
Crime is caused by:
Right Realist: Murray.
Working class lack male role models leading to a culture of dependency. Tougher sentencing needs punishment to outweigh the rewards.
Right Realist: Wilson.
Damaged architecture, leads working class to believe authority does not care.
Right Realist: Wilson and Kelling.
Broken windows theory: monitoring and maintenance. Zero tolerance policing.
Ignores areas which have lost social order.
Right Realist: Evaluation.
Development of ‘stop, question and frisk’. Zero tolerance policing reduced crime. Focuses on minor offences. Ignores causes. Increased prison population.
Left Realist: Lea and Young.
Inequality causes crime. Marketisation increases relative deprivation. High modernity leads to high cultural inclusion but social and economic exclusion.
Left Realist: Kinsey, Lea and Young.
Consensus policing - democratically elected police force.
Full investigations to increase crime detection.
Left Realist: Evaluation.
Development of tougher sentencing.
Hughes: if relative deprivation was the cause, there would be more crime.
Ethnicity: Bowling and Phillips.
Victimisation risk - 7.2% non white, 5% white.
Ethnic minorities live in higher victimisation areas.
More likely to be young, unemployed and spend their leisure time in public areas.
Black/Asian more likely to be stopped and searched.
More likely to remain silent, seek support and deny the offence.
Young black men were the scapegoats of the 1970s moral panic due to stereotyping.
Myth of black criminality - overrecorded due to police stereotypes and racist labelling. Black crimes are political.
Most black crimes are interracial and therefore cannot be political.
Social Class: Overview.
Most criminals are from a working class background. Of 2000 prisoners between 2006-2007, 42% had no qualifications. Middle class crimes are underrepresented.
Social Class: Reiner.
Crimes of the poor are more visible.
Social Class: Marx.
Lumpenproletariat - working class not in work, income is from begging, prostitution or utilitarian crime.
Social Class: Miller.
Working class - toughness, smartness, excellence. Leads to deviance.
Males commit more violent crimes, women are more likely to shoplift.
Women are more skilled in deception because of menstruation. Chivalry thesis: women are treated more leniently because society is socialised into being protective. Women are more likely to be warned or let off prison.
Criminal justice system is tougher on women: rapists are not found guilty, domestic violence is not taken seriously. Caused embarrassment in court.
Double deviant - broken laws and social norms. Tougher sentences. Fewer opportunities to commit crimes.
Crimes of the powerless. Childless women more likely to be punished than women with children.
Illicit drugs, weapons, human trafficking, corruption, violent/war crimes.
Globalisation leads to interconnectedness which leads to more cybercrime.
Supply (3rd) and demand (Western) harms culture, politics and economy. Leads to preference of criminal careers.
State spending on welfare has declined.
Globalisation: Hobbs and Dunningham.
Loose-knit network, ‘glocal’ system. Working together instead of in permanent gangs.
Immediacy, dramatisation, personalisation, higher status, simplification, novelty, risk, violence.
Media is an ideological state apparatus.
The media creates moral panics by exaggeration, distortion, prediction and symbolisation.
The line between deviance and normality is blurred.
Media: McRobbie and Thornton.
Moral panics have less impact, used to shock.
New and old ways of committing crimes.
Cybertrespass, cyberdeception, cyberpornography, cyberviolence.
Green Crime: South.
Primary environmental crimes are legal or not enforced but cause damage. Zemiology - crimes should be dealt with in terms of the harm caused.
Nature is exploited for corporate profit.
Green Crime: Beck.
Risk society - lack of resource, overcome by science/technology.
Green Crime: Sutton.
Richer people can afford to live in least affected areas.
Green Crime: White.
Damage to environment = damage to humans.
Green Crime: Evaluation.
Crimes are subjective.
Human Rights: McLaughlin.
Political, police, economic, social, cultural crimes.
Human Rights: H and J Schwendinger.
Duty of sociology to support human rights and expose abuses.
Human Rights: Cohen.
Claims event did not happen, redefining event, abuses prevent greater harm.
Human Rights: Evaluation.
Unable to enforce universal human rights.
Crime Control: Felson.
Preventing situational crime - likely offender and a likely target with no guardian to discourage.
Crime is opportunistic.
Designing out crime - Port Authority Bus Terminal.
Crime Control: Durkheim.
Mechanical solidarity and collective conscious. Prefers restorative justice.
Crime Control: Rusche and Kirchheimer.
Early middle ages - religious penance and fines.
Later middle ages - harsh punishments.
17th Century - prisoners as a subservient workforce.
Crime Control: Goffman.
Mortification of self - inmates degraded/humiliated. Prisoners made more criminal. Increased prison population, crime rate decreased.
Crime Control: Foucalt.
Surveillance manages behaviour.
Crime Control: Evaluation.
Ignores underlying causes and other types of crime.
Victims are stereotyped as weak.
Most likely victims are young men, alcoholics, minority ethnic groups, working class.
Victim precipitation causes victim blaming.
Victimisation: Mawby and Walklate.
Victims have rights which need honouring.
Victimisation: Tombs and Whytes.
Victims of corporate crimes, extent is observed.
Criminal Justice System: Foucalt.
Sovereign power is over disciplinary power.
Panoptic prisons, jailors can view from one place, self monitoring.
Criminal Justice System: Garland.
Penal welfarism - rehabilitation and reintegration. Adaptive response - intervene early, expressive strategy.
Crime is central to politics. Sovereign state strategy - control through sanctions.
Criminal Justice System: Cohen.
Use of other professions, wider use of state power.
Durkheim, Merton, AK Cohen.
AK Cohen, Cloward and Ohlin.
Snider, Chambliss, Taylor, Walton and Young.
Lemert, Cohen, Cicourel.
Sociologists: Right Realist.
Murray, Wilson, Wilson and Kelling.
Sociologists: Left Realist.
Lea and Young, Kinsey, Lea and Young.
Bowling and Phillips, Hall, GIlroy.
Sociologists: Social Class.
Reiner, Marx, Miller.
Pollack, Walklate, Heidensohn, Carlen.
Held, Castells, Taylor, Hobbs and Dunningham.
Cohen, Thornton, McRobbie and Thornton, Jewkes, Wall.
Sociologists: Green Crime.
South, Beck, Sutton, White.
Sociologists: Human Rights.
McLaughlin, H and J Schwendinger, Cohen.
Sociologists: Crime Control.
Felson, Durkheim, Rusche and Kirchheimer, Goffman, Foucalt.
Christie, Miers, Mawby and Walklate, Tombs and Whytes.
Sociologists: Criminal Justice System.
Foucalt, Garland, Cohen.