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Flashcards in Mediastinum Deck (83):
1

Superior boundary of mediastinum

Superior Thoracic Aperture

2

Inferior boundary of mediastinum

Diaphragm

3

Anterior boundary of mediastinum

Sternum

4

Posterior boundary of mediastinum

Thoracic vertebrae

5

Lateral boundary of mediastinum

Lungs and pleurae

6

Superior boundary of superior mediastinum

Superior thoracic aperture

7

Inferior boundary of superior mediastinum

horizontal plane

8

Anterior boundary of superior mediastinum

manubrium of sternum

9

Posterior boundary of superior mediastinum

T1 - T4

10

Lateral boundary of superior mediastinum

Lungs and Pleurae

11

Contents of Superior Mediastinum

Remnant of thymus
Brachiocephalic veins and SVC
Pulmonary trunk and pulmonary artery
Aortic arch and branches
Trachea
Vagus N.
Oesophagus
Phrenic N
Cardiac Plexus
Left recurrent laryngeal N.
Thoracic duct and lymphatics

Remember before picking apples, take view of people coming lowering tasers

12

Superior boundary of anterior mediastinum

horizontal plane

13

Inferior boundary of anterior mediastinum

diaphragm

14

anterior boundary of anterior mediastinum

body of sternum and Xiphoid process

15

Posterior boundary of anterior mediaastinum

pericardium

16

Lateral boundary of anterior mediastinum

Lungs and Pleurae

17

Contents of anterior mediastinum

Remnants of thymus gland

18

superior boundary of posterior mediastinum

hornizontal plane

19

inferior boundary of posterior mediastinum

diaphragm

20

anterior boundary of posterior mediastinum

pericardium

21

posterior boundary of posterior mediastinum

T5 - T12 vertebrae

22

Lateral boundary of posterior mediastinum

Lungs and pleura

23

Contents of posterior mediastinum

Oesophagus
Vagus N.
Thoracic duct
Azygous V.
Descending aorta
Right and left symphthetic trunks
Lymph nodes

Oust Vodacom, take ADSL

24

superior boundary of middle mediastinum

horizontal plane

25

Inferior boundary of middle mediastinum

Diaphragm

26

Anterior boundary of middle mediastinum

Pericardium

27

posterior boundary of middle mediastinum

Pericardium

28

Lateral boundary of middle mediastinum

Lunds and Pleura

29

Contents of middle mediastinum

Pericardium and Heart

Great vessels:
-Ascending aorta
-SVA
-Pulmonary trunk

Cardiac plexus

Phrenic N and Pericardialphrenic vessels

30

From where does the thoracic duct arist?

Chyle Cistern

31

What is the position of the chyle cistern

Anterior to L2 body
Posterior to abdominal aorta
Between aorta and Right Crus of Diaphragm

32

Course of thoracic duct

1: At T12, passes through Aortic Hiatus

2: At level of T4/T5, inclines to left side of median plane

3: Ascends posterior to aortic Arch on left side of oesophagus to traverse (pass through) superior thoracic aperture

4: Arches laterally and then inferiorly - anterior to subclavian artery - to enter left venous angle.

33

What is the Azygous vein formed by?

Union of:
Right lumbar vein
Right subcostal vein

34

Where does the azygous vein end?

Joins the SVC

35

What are the tributaries of the Azygous Vein

Hemizygous v.
Right posterior intercotal v.
Right superior phrenic v.
Right superior intercostal v.
Right costal v.
Oesophageal v.
Bronchial v.
Pericardial v.

36

What is the pericardium composed of?

Superficial fibrous pericardium
Deep two-layered serous pericardium

37

What is the visceral layer of the pericardium also called

epicardium
deep two-layered serous pericardium

38

What separates the parietal and visceral layers of the pericarium

pericardial cavity which is filled with fluid

39

What is type of tissues does the fibrous pericardium consist of

dense connective tissue

40

What lies on the top layer of the parietal pericardium

superficial fibrous pericardium

41

What attaches the fibrous pericardium to the diaphragm

pericardiacophrenic ligament

42

What is the location of the transverse sinus

located between the aorta and pulmonary trunk anteriorly
and the left atrium and superior vena cavae posteriorly

43

What is the function of the transverse sinus

connects the two sides of the epricardial cavity

44

What is the location of the oblique sinus

between the pulmonary veins and inferior vene cavae posteriorly
between the pulmonary veins and left atrium anteriorly

45

What is the function of the oblique sinus

it has no function - it is a blind sac (cul de sac)

46

What makes up the heart wall

Visceral layer of serous pericardium (epicardium)
Myocardium
Endocardium

47

Describe the blood supply of the pericardium

Pericardiacophrenic artery
Internal thoracic arteries

Internal thoracic veins drain the area

48

Describe the innervation of the pericardium

Phrenic nerves: Sensory fibres that control pain sensation

Sympathetic trunks: Vasomotor fibres

Parasympathetic supply comes from Vagus nerve

49

What is the position of the heart

Middle mediastinum

Behind body of sternum and 2nd - 6th costal cartilages

One third lies to the right

Two thirds lies to the left

Opposite to T5 - T8 vertebrae (supine position)
Opppposite to T6 - T9 vertebrae (erect position

50

Name the four borders of the heart

Superior
Right
Inferior
Left

51

Describe the superior border of the heart

Formed by the two atria

Right 3rd costal cartilage on right side of sternum
to
2nd intercostal space on left side of sternum

52

Describe the right border of the heart

Formed by the right atria

Extends from right 3rd costal cartilage to near right 6th costal cartilage

53

Describe the inferior border of the heart

mainly formed by right ventricle and slightly by left ventricle

Sternal end of right 6th costal cartilage
to
midclavicular line in left 5th intercostal space

54

Describe the left border of the heart

Formed mainly by left ventricle and partly by left auricle

Left 2nd intercostal space
to
midclavicular line in left 5th intercostal space

55

Name the three surfaces of the heart

sternocostal
posterior
diaphragmatic

56

What is the sternocostal surface of the heart formed by

RA, RV, LV, Left Auricle

57

What is the posterior surface of the heart formed by

2/3: LA
1/3: RA

58

What is the diaphragmatic surface of the heart formed by

2/3: LV
1/3: RV

59

What is the "BASE" of the heart?

Posterior surface of the heart

60

What are the three openings for the right atrium

SVC
IVC
Coronary Sinus

61

What are the notable internal features of the right atrium

Anterior surface roughed by pectinate muscles
Posterior surface is smooth
SA node
Cristae terminalis
Fossa ovalis
Limbus fossa ovalis
Tricuspid valve

62

Where is SA node located

Superior extent of cristae terminalis (separates anterior part from posterior), near the opening of SVC

63

What is the embryological origin of posterior surface of right atrium

Sinus venosum

64

What are the notable internal features of the left atrium

pectinate muscles
bicuspid valve

65

What are the features that mark the ventricular walls

papillary muscles and trabeculae carneae

66

What are the differences of the right ventricle when compared to the left ventricle

Walls 3x thinner

Trabeculae carnae are coarse and few

Three papillary muscles

Conrdae tendinae are few and short

Conical cavity shorter

Moderator band

67

What are the differences of the left ventricle when compared to the right ventricle

Walls 3x thicker

Trabeculae carnae are fine and numerous

Two papillary muscles

Chordae tindinae are more and long

Conical cavity longer

No moderator bank

68

Describe the moderator band. What is it also called?

Also called septomarginal trabecula

Specilised trabecula in RV extending from right side of ventricular septum to base of anterior papillary muscle

Carries right branch of bundle of HIS

69

What makes up the heart valves

Endocardium with a connective tissue core

70

What is the right AV valve

Tricuspid valve

71

what is the left AV valve

Biscuspid (mitral) valve

72

Where does the aortic semilunar valve lie

between left ventricle and the aorta

73

Where does the pulmonary semilunar valve lie

between right ventricle and pulmonary trunk

74

What forms the "lub"

closing of the atrioventricular valves

75

What forms the "dub"

closing of the semilunar valves

76

What is the location of the aortic valve

oblique
posterior to sternum at level of 3rd intercostal space

77

What is the site for auscultation of the aortic valve

2nd right intercostal space, near the sternal border

78

What is the location of the pulmonary valve

3rd costal cartilgae at the left side of the sternum

79

What is the site for auscultation of the pulmonary valve

2nd left intercostal space, near the sternal border

80

What is the location of the tricuspid valve

posterior to the body of sternum
At right 3rd/4th intercostal spaces

81

What is the site for auscultation of the tricuspid valve

5th right intercostal space, near the sternal border

82

What is the location of the mitral valve

posterior to the sternum, at the 4th left costal cartilage

83

What is the site for auscultation of the mitral valve

5th left intercostal space - in the midclavicular line