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Flashcards in Lungs Deck (47):
1

What type of membrane are the pleurae made up of

Serous membrane

2

What does the visceral pleura line

interlobular fissures. Covers lungs directly

3

What does parietal pleura line

internal surface of thoracic cavity

4

At what area are the pleurae continuous with each other

hilum of lung and pulmonary ligament

5

What is the space between the visceral and parietal pleurae

pleural cavity

6

what does the pleural cavity contain

serous fluid

7

what are the functions of the pleural cavity

lubricates surfaces of pleurae
creates surface tension so that when the thorax expands, the lungs also expand

8

if air enters the pleural cavity of the lungs

pneumothorax

9

What are the types of parietal pleurae

mediastinal pleura
cervical pleura
costal pleura
diaphragmatic pleura

10

what does the medistinal pleura cover

covers the lateral part of the mediastinum

11

what does the cervical pleura cover

lines extension of the pleural cavity into the neck

12

what does the costal pleura cover

covers inner aspect of ribs, costal cartilages and intercostal muscles

13

What does the diaphragmatic pleura cover

covers thoracic (superior) surface of diaphragm

14

What are the two pleural recesses

costomediastinal
costodiaphragmatic

15

where is the costomediastinal pleural recess

between the costal pleurae and the mediastinal pleurae ---- behind the sternum

16

where is the costodiaphragmatic pleural recess

between the costal pleurae and diaphragmatic pleurae

17

why are the pleural recesses of clinical importance

pleural effusion can occur if fluid collects in them

18

What artery supplies the parietal pleura

Intercostal A.

19

Describe the nervous supply of the visceral pleurae

not sensitive to pain, pressure or temperature. Sensory fibers only detect stretch

Autonomic Innervation comes from pulmonary plexus:
sympathetic trunk and Vagus N.

20

Describe the arterial supply of the visceral pleurae

From bronchial arteries:
Branches of descending aorta

Also supplies parenchyma of lungs

21

Where is the hilum of the lung

Level of 2nd - 4th costal cartilages

22

What are the borders

Inferior border
Posterior border
Anterior border

23

Surfaces of the lungs

Base (diaphragmatic surface)
Mediastinal surface
Costal surface

24

What are the three lobes of the lungs

Superior lobe
Middle lobe
Inferior lobe

25

What does the horizontal fissure

Superior lobe
Middle lobe

26

What does the oblique fissure separate

Superior lobe
Inferior lobe

27

Wheree is the Azygous vein in relation to the esophagus

Lateral

28

What are the lobes of the left lung and what separates them

Superior lobe
inferior lobe

Separated by oblique fissure

29

Where is the lingula in relation to the left lung

On the mediastinal side of the superior lobe

30

Where is the esophatus and aortic arch in relation to the thoracic aorta

Lateral

31

What is the course of the Oblique Fissure (in it's posterior view)

On both lungs:


In midline near spine of vertebra T4

Moves laterally in downward direction reaching rib 6 laterallly

Crosses 4th and 5th intercostal spaces

32

What is the course of the Oblique Fissure (in it's anterior view)

On both lungs:

Follows contour of rib 6 and its costal cartilage

33

What is the course, in its anterior view, of the horizontal fissure

Follows contour of rib 4 and its costal cartilage

Begins from anterior border at level of 4th Costal Cartilage and runs horizontally to meet oblique fissure at midaxillary line

34

Where do the anterior borders of the lungs lie? What is its path in each lung

Adjacent to the anterior line of parietal pleura reflection, as afar as the 4th costal cartilage

On the left, they go laterallly and inferiorlly at the cardiac notch to reach the level of the 6th costal cartilage

On the right, it continues until xiphisteral joint in a straight line

35

What are the divisions of the tracheobronchial tree

Trachea
Main bronchus
Lobar bronchi
Segmental bronchi
Terminal bronchiole
Respiratory bronchiole
Alveolar ducts

Alveoli

36

What are characteristic of the bronchopulmonary segments

Each has
its own bronchus
its own artery

37

How many bronchopulmonary segments does the upper lobe of the lung have? what are they?

3 lobes

Apical, Posterior, Anterior

38

How many segments does the middle lobe (or lingula) of the lung have

2 lobes
Medial
lateral

39

How many segments does the lower lobe of the lung have? What are they

5 lobes

Apical, 4 basal (anterior, medial, posterior, lateral)

40

What are the exceptions in the lung segments, in that they have a comon segmental bronchus

Apicoposterior segment of the left upper lobe
Anteromedial segment of the left lower lobe

41

What is the artirial suppply of the lungs? Where do these vessels arise

Bronchial arteries (of systemic circulation)

Left and Right Bronchial Arteries arise from the Descending Thoracic Aorta

42

What is special about the Right Bronchial Artery

It shares a common trunk with the third posterior intercostal artery

43

Describe the venous drainage of the lungs for the left and right lungs

Drained by the bronchial veins

Left:
Drains into accessory Hemiazygous Vein or the Left Superior Intercostal Vein

Right
Drains into Azygous Vein

44

What is the innervation of the lungs? What is also identical to it?

Lungs and Visceral Pleurae are both innervated in the same way

Parasympathetic: Vagus Nerve

Sympathetic: sympathetic Fibres of Sympathetic Trunk

45

What is the innvervation of the Parietal Pleurae innervated by?

Intercostal N
Phrenic Nerve

46

What is the lymphatic drainage of the lungs

Subpleural (superficial) and Deep Lymphatic Plexus

Bronchopulmonary (Hilar) Nodes

Tracheobronchial Nodes
(superior - L and R; Inferior - Carinal)

FROM THERE

R- Right Bronchomediastinal Trunk then Right Lymphatic Duct;
L- Left Bronchomediastinal Trunk then Thoracic duct

Bronchomediastinal Trunks each have a branch into the inferior deep cervical nodes

47

Describe the nerve supply of the parietal pleura

sensitive to pressure, pain and temperature
pain is well--localised

SUPPLIED BY PHRENIC AND INTERCOSTAL NERVES:
Costal Pleura: Intercostal nerve

Mediastinal Pleura: Phrenic nerve

Diaphragmatic Pleura: Phrenic nerve and inferior 6 intercostal nerves