Flashcards in Medical 1.2 Deck (21)
Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor
Eptifibatide is a cyclic heptapeptide which blocks the platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor, the binding site for fibrinogen, von Willebrand factor, and other ligands. Inhibition of binding at this final common receptor reversibly blocks platelet aggregation and prevents thrombosis
Direct thrombin inhibitor
P2Y12 receptor blocker
Reversibly and noncompetitively binds the adenosine diphosphate (ADP) P2Y12 receptor on the platelet surface which prevents ADP-mediated activation of the GPIIb/IIIa receptor complex thereby reducing platelet aggregation. Due to the reversible antagonism of the P2Y12 receptor, recovery of platelet function is likely to depend on serum concentrations of ticagrelor and its active metabolite
Mitral valve papillary muscle: blood supply?
Coronary artery dominance
The artery from which the posterior descending artery (PDA) arises
70% of people are right heart dominant
CAP: typical organisms?
1) Strep pneumo
3) H. flu
3-2-1 rule: 3 affected family members, 2 generations, 1 under 50
Lewy-Body Dementia: initial features?
Early impairments in attention and executive/visuospatial function (memory is usually affected later in the disease)
Early symptoms include driving difficulty (eg, getting lost, misjudging distances, or failing to see stop signs or other cars) and impaired job performance. The early appearance of impaired figure copying (overlapping pentagons), clock drawing, and serial sevens (or spelling WORLD backward) is suggestive of DLB, while AD patients generally show impaired short-term memory and orientation as the earliest deficits on the MMSE
Lewy-Body Dementia: symptoms?
- FLUCTUATING cognition
- Visual hallucinations
Fluctuations — Fluctuations in cognition and levels of alertness may occur early in the course of DLB and are estimated to be a feature in 60 to 80 percent of cases. The severity, duration, and type of symptoms involved in fluctuations is quite varied, even for a given patient. Episodes can be subtle, as in a brief decline in ability to perform an activity of daily living, or they may be dramatic enough to raise the question of a stroke or seizure. Caregivers often describe episodes in which patients appear to "blank out" or lose consciousness, become confused or behave in a bizarre manner, have speech or motor arrest, or become excessively somnolent. These episodes can last seconds to days, and they can be interspersed with periods of near-normal function.
This feature of DLB has been considered the most difficult of the core clinical features for inexperienced clinicians to evaluate. Family members may not volunteer this history. At the same time, questions to elicit this history, if too general, are likely to obtain false positive responses in patients with other forms of dementia.
Visual hallucinations in Lewy-Body Dementia
Visual hallucinations occur in approximately two-thirds of patients with DLB, and are relatively rare in AD [20-22]. These are also an early sign in DLB and may precede parkinsonism. In one study with neuropathologic confirmation, visual hallucinations at presentation was the most useful clinical feature to distinguish DLB from AD, with 83 percent positive predictive value . Among patients with DLB, those with visual hallucinations appear to have more severe deficits in visual attention and executive function compared with those without visual hallucinations, but similar degrees of visuospatial and visual-perceptual impairment .
Descriptions range from well-formed images of people or animals, to more abstract visions such as shapes or colors. Patients have described such simple hallucinations as seeing something briefly out of the corner of their eye, or extremely complex hallucinations, such as an ongoing dialog with a deceased loved one. Patients may also describe visual misperceptions, in which an object seems to move, zoom toward or away from the patient, or change shape.
Propofol-related infusion syndrome: clinical manifestations?
- Type B lactic acidosis
- Myocardial abnormalities (J-point elevation)
This rare syndrome occurs in approximately 1% of critically ill patients receiving propofol and most commonly occurs in those receiving doses above 4 mg/kg/h administered for more than 48 hours. The proposed mechanism involves the uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation and energy production in mitochondria by propofol, coupled with the normal stress response to critical illness, to cause the characteristic findings of the syndrome.
Lichen Planus: associated diseases?
Lichen Planus: pathogenesis?
Immune-mediated mechanism involving T-cells against basal keratinocytes
CDiff: causative antibiotics?
CDiff: how is severe disease defined?
1 point for each of the following:
- WBC > 15
- Age > 60
- Temp > 38.3
- Albumin < 2.5
Patients with 2 or more points are considered to have severe disease
Tumor Lysis Syndrome: Criteria?
LABORATORY TLS: 2 or more of the following:
CLINICAL TLS: Lab TLS + one of the following:
- Symptomatic hyperkalemia
- Symptomatic hypocalcemia
Lateral pressure on nonblistered skin leads to denudation
Also known as "Wisdom spots"