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Flashcards in Medical 1.3 Deck (29)
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1

Condyloma

A wartlike excresence at anus or vulva

From greek "Kondyloma", a knob

"Latum (Lata)": Wide

"Acuminatum": Pointed

2

Scleroderma Renal Crisis: risk factors?

- Recent steroid use
- Diagnosis of scleroderma in past 48 months

3

Invasive aspergillus: clinical manifestations?

- Pneumonia: pulmonary nodules, GGOs, cavitites

- Sinusitis

- Subcutaneous nodules

- Cerebral infarction

4

Aortic stenosis: survival rates?

CHF symptoms: 50% survival at 2 years
Syncope: 50% survival at 3 years
Angina: 50% survival at 5 years

5

Pain with alcohol intake can be a sign of what condition?

Hodgkin Lymphoma

6

CT scanning for lung cancer: Indications?

1) Age 55-74
2) At least 30-pack year smoking history
3) Current smoker or quit within last 15 years

7

Why should you not drink alcohol after vigorous exercise?

Vigorous exercise decreases muscle glycogen stores. In order to replenish these stores, the Liver releases glucose into the blood. Alcohol inhibits the Liver's ability to release glucose, causing a decrease in blood glucose and inability for muscles to replenish glycogen stores

8

Eosinophilia: Differential Diagnosis?

1) Allergic conditions (atopic dermatitis, asthma, etc)
2) Rheumatologic conditions: Churg-Strauss, etc
3) Parasitic infections
4) Adrenal Insufficiency
5) Sarcoidosis

9

How does Adrenal Insufficiency cause Eosinophilia?

Glucocorticoids cause selective apoptosis of eosinophils, but not neutrophils.

The glucocorticoid deficiency leads to a proliferation of Eosinophils

10

Drug that can be used to reverse Opioid constipation

Methylnaltrexone (Relistor)

A micro-opioid-receptor antagonist that only acts on gut tissue

11

List the Anthracyclines

- Doxorubicin
- Daunorubicin
- Idarubicin

12

Lemierre Syndrome

Suppurative Thrombophlebitis

Refers to venous thrombosis associated with inflammation in the setting of bacteremia [1]. Histologic findings consist of inflammation and suppuration within the vein wall. Thrombus with or without pus may be seen within the vein lumen, with evidence of perivascular inflammation

13

List some causes of CNS infection with a LYMPHOCYTIC predominance

1) Syphilis (Treponema pallidum)
2) Tuberculosis

14

Tabes dorsalis

Syphilitic damage to posterior columns

Leads to ataxia, loss of reflexes and loss of protopathic sensation

15

Describe the VRDL and RPR tests

Test for serum antibodies to cardiolipin and lecithin

Spirochetes result in cellular damage, causing several lipids to be released into circulation (including cardiolipin and lecithin)

16

Interpret this pattern:

VDRL/RPR: +
FTA-ABS: +

Active treponemal infection

17

Sclerodactyly

Localized thickening and tightness of skin in fingers and toes

18

Most common cause of acute viral gastroenteritis?

Norovirus

19

Viral gastroenteritis: stool studies?

Negative for fecal leukocytes and occult blood

20

Aortic Stenosis: describe the grading of severity based on valve area

Normal: 3-4 cm2
Mild: 1.5 to 3
Moderate: 1.0 to 1.5
Severe: <1.0

21

Describe the NYHA classification of CHF

Class 1: Symptoms only at activity levels that would limit normal individuals
Class II: Symptoms of HF with ordinary exertion
Class III: Symptoms of HF with less than ordinary exertion
Class IV: Symptoms of HF at rest

22

Aortic Stenosis: describe the grading of severity based on pressure gradient

Normal: <5
Mild: 5-25
Moderate: 25-40
Severe: greater than 40

23

Avastin

Bevacizumab (VEGF-antagonist)

Used in certain cancers and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia

24

Still's disease: Clinical features?

- Quotidian (daily) fevers
- Arthralgias
- Salmon-colored rash over trunk/extremities, usually worse with febrile episodes

25

Still's disease: AKA?

Systemic onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis

26

Loeffler's syndrome

Eosinophilic pneumonitis (usually secondary to Ascaris infection)

Ascaris larvae migrate hematogenously to the lungs, where they mature in the alveoli. Eosinophils attack these larvae, causing eosinophilic pneumonitis

27

Loeffler's syndrome: symptoms?

- Dry cough
- Burning substernal discomfort
- Dyspnea/blood-tinged sputum
- Urticaria (15% of pts)

28

Charcot-Leyden crystals

Crystals found in all eosinophilic parasitic lung infections

Consist of Lysophospholipase, an eosinophil-derived enzyme

29

ABPA

Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis

Complex hypersensitivity reaction that occurs when bronchi become colonized by Aspergillus species (often in asthma or CF patients)