Flashcards in Medical 1.3 Deck (29)
A wartlike excresence at anus or vulva
From greek "Kondyloma", a knob
"Latum (Lata)": Wide
Scleroderma Renal Crisis: risk factors?
- Recent steroid use
- Diagnosis of scleroderma in past 48 months
Invasive aspergillus: clinical manifestations?
- Pneumonia: pulmonary nodules, GGOs, cavitites
- Subcutaneous nodules
- Cerebral infarction
Aortic stenosis: survival rates?
CHF symptoms: 50% survival at 2 years
Syncope: 50% survival at 3 years
Angina: 50% survival at 5 years
Pain with alcohol intake can be a sign of what condition?
CT scanning for lung cancer: Indications?
1) Age 55-74
2) At least 30-pack year smoking history
3) Current smoker or quit within last 15 years
Why should you not drink alcohol after vigorous exercise?
Vigorous exercise decreases muscle glycogen stores. In order to replenish these stores, the Liver releases glucose into the blood. Alcohol inhibits the Liver's ability to release glucose, causing a decrease in blood glucose and inability for muscles to replenish glycogen stores
Eosinophilia: Differential Diagnosis?
1) Allergic conditions (atopic dermatitis, asthma, etc)
2) Rheumatologic conditions: Churg-Strauss, etc
3) Parasitic infections
4) Adrenal Insufficiency
How does Adrenal Insufficiency cause Eosinophilia?
Glucocorticoids cause selective apoptosis of eosinophils, but not neutrophils.
The glucocorticoid deficiency leads to a proliferation of Eosinophils
Drug that can be used to reverse Opioid constipation
A micro-opioid-receptor antagonist that only acts on gut tissue
List the Anthracyclines
Refers to venous thrombosis associated with inflammation in the setting of bacteremia . Histologic findings consist of inflammation and suppuration within the vein wall. Thrombus with or without pus may be seen within the vein lumen, with evidence of perivascular inflammation
List some causes of CNS infection with a LYMPHOCYTIC predominance
1) Syphilis (Treponema pallidum)
Syphilitic damage to posterior columns
Leads to ataxia, loss of reflexes and loss of protopathic sensation
Describe the VRDL and RPR tests
Test for serum antibodies to cardiolipin and lecithin
Spirochetes result in cellular damage, causing several lipids to be released into circulation (including cardiolipin and lecithin)
Interpret this pattern:
Active treponemal infection
Localized thickening and tightness of skin in fingers and toes
Most common cause of acute viral gastroenteritis?
Viral gastroenteritis: stool studies?
Negative for fecal leukocytes and occult blood
Aortic Stenosis: describe the grading of severity based on valve area
Normal: 3-4 cm2
Mild: 1.5 to 3
Moderate: 1.0 to 1.5
Describe the NYHA classification of CHF
Class 1: Symptoms only at activity levels that would limit normal individuals
Class II: Symptoms of HF with ordinary exertion
Class III: Symptoms of HF with less than ordinary exertion
Class IV: Symptoms of HF at rest
Aortic Stenosis: describe the grading of severity based on pressure gradient
Severe: greater than 40
Used in certain cancers and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia
Still's disease: Clinical features?
- Quotidian (daily) fevers
- Salmon-colored rash over trunk/extremities, usually worse with febrile episodes
Still's disease: AKA?
Systemic onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis
Eosinophilic pneumonitis (usually secondary to Ascaris infection)
Ascaris larvae migrate hematogenously to the lungs, where they mature in the alveoli. Eosinophils attack these larvae, causing eosinophilic pneumonitis
Loeffler's syndrome: symptoms?
- Dry cough
- Burning substernal discomfort
- Dyspnea/blood-tinged sputum
- Urticaria (15% of pts)
Crystals found in all eosinophilic parasitic lung infections
Consist of Lysophospholipase, an eosinophil-derived enzyme