Medical Terminology 3 (M-Z) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Medical Terminology 3 (M-Z) Deck (116):
1

Mandible

Lower Jaw Bone.

2

Maxillae

Upper jaw bone.

3

Meconium Staining

Amniotic fluid that is greenish/brownish rather than clear as a result of fetal defecation. Indication of distress.

4

Medial

Toward the midline.

5

Medical Director

Physician who assumes responsibility for patient care of the EMS system.

6

Metatarsals

Foot bones.

7

Mid-axillary Line

A line from the middle of the arm pit to the ankle.

8

Mid-clavicular Line

Line through the center of each clavicle.

9

Midline

Line down the center of the body, dividing it into right/left halves.

10

Minute Volume

Amount of air breathed in during each respiration multiplied by number of breaths per minute.

11

Mottling

A blotchy appearance - Sometimes occurs in patients who are in shock.

12

Multiple casualty incident (MCI)

Emergency involving multiple patients.

13

Musculoskeletal System

Bones, joints and muscles.

14

Negligence

Something that should have been done was not or was done incorrectly.

15

Nervous System

Brain, spinal cord and nerves.

Coordinates body's response.

16

Nitroglycerin

Drug that helps dialate the coronary vessels that supply the heart muscle with blood.

- Used in chest pain patients.

- Should not be given in patients with BP under 100 systolic.

17

Occlusion

Blockage of an artery by fatty deposits.

18

Occlusive Dressing

Dressing that forms an air tight seal.

19

Off-line medical direction.

Standing orders issued by medical director that allow EMTs to do things without speaking to him.

20

On-line Medical Direction

Orders given by on duty physician to an EMT over phone or radio.

21

Oral Glucose

Glucose (sugar) given by mouth to the awake patient with an altered mental status and history of diabetes.

22

Orbits

Bony structure around the eyes (eye socket)

23

OSHA

Occupational Safety and Health Administration.

24

Oxygen

o2 used as a drug to the hypoxic patient.

25

Pancreas

Gland located behind the stomach that produces insulin that assist in digestion of food. (regulates blood sugar level)

Alpha cells secrete hormone glucagon in response to low blood sugar levels, glycogen is broken down to glucose.

Beta cells secrete insulin - in response to high glucose levels.

26

Paradoxical Motion

When flail segment and rest of chest move in opposite directions.

27

Partial thickness burn

2nd degree, involving dermis.

reddening and blistering

28

Pathogens

Organisms that cause infection (viruses/bacteria)

Can be blood borne or airborne.

29

Penetrating trauma

Injury caused by an object that passes through the skin/body.

30

Perfusion

Supply of oxygen to, removal of waste from, the body's cells and tissues as a result of blood flow.

31

Placenta

Organ of pregnancy where exchange of oxygen, nutrients and waste occurs between mother and fetus.

32

Placenta Previa

Placenta is formed in an abnormal location that will not allow for a normal delivery.

33

Pneumonia

An infection of one or both lungs caused by bacteria, viruses an fungi.

34

Pneumothorax

Air in the chest cavity.

35

Posterior

Back of the body or body part.

36

Preeclampsia

Complication of pregnancy - women retains large amounts of fluid and has hypertension (High BP)

37

Preschool age

3-5 years of age
Vitals: HR = 80-120/min
Respirations = 20-30/min
Systolic BP = 80-110

38

Pressure Dressing

Dressing applied tightly to control bleeding.

39

Priapism

Persistent erection of the penis that may result from a spinal injury and some medical problems.

40

Primary Assessment

To discover and treat life threatening problems. 6 parts of primary are:
-General Impression
-Mental Status
-Airway
-Breathing
-Circulation
-Determine priority of patient

41

Prolapsed Umbilical Cord

Umbilical cord presents first and its squeezed between the vaginal wall and baby's head.

42

Prone

Lying face down.

43

Protocols

List of steps for assessment and interventions to be performed.

44

Proximal

Closer to the torso.

45

Pulmonary Arteries

Vessels that carry deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs.

46

Pulmonary Edema

Abnormal accumulation of fluid in the alveoli of the lungs.

47

Pulmonary Embolism

A dangerous condition were a blood clot, air or fat tries to go through these blood vessels but gets stuck and blocks an artery in the lungs.

48

Pulse Quality

Regular or irregular and strong and weak.

49

Puncture Wound

Open wound that tears through skin and destroys underlying tissue.

50

Radial Artery

Artery of the lower arm.

51

Radius

Lateral bone of forearm.

52

Reassessment

Procedure for detecting changes in a patients condition.

53

Recovery position

Lying on the side, also called lateral recumbent.

54

Renal Failure

Loss of kidneys ability to filter there blood and remove toxins and excess fluid.

55

Respiratory Distress, Failure and Arrest

Distress: Increased work of breathing.
Failure: Reduction of breathing to the point were o2 intake is not sufficient to support life.
Arrest: Breathing stops.

56

Respiratory Quality

Normal or abnormal and shallow - labored - noisy

57

Respiratory System

Consist of:
Nasal cavity
pharynx
larynx
trachea
Bronchial tube
Lungs

-Obtains oxygen and removes carbon dioxide from the body.

58

Rule of nines

Estimates burn percentage.

59

Rule of palm

Method estimating extent of burns.

60

Ryan white care act

establishes procedures by which emergency response workers may find out if they have been exposed to life threatening infectious diseases.

61

Scapula

Shoulder Blade

62

School Age

6-12 Years
Vitals: HR = 70-110/min
Respirations = 20-30/min
Systolic BP = 80-120

63

Scope of practice

Defines the scope or extent and limits of the EMTs job.
*What you can do.

64

Seizure

Sudden change in sensation / behavior or movement.
Caused by brains electrical activity.

65

Signs and symptom

Sign is objective - something you see, hear, feel or smell.
Symptom is subjective - You cannot observe but the patient feels or tells you about.

66

Signs of shock

Altered mental status
pale, cool, clammy
Nausea/vomiting
Vital sign changes

67

Spontaneous Pneumothorax

When a lung collapses without injury or any other obvious cause.

68

Stages of death

Denial - Not Me
Anger - Why Me
Bargaining - Okay, but first...
Depression - Okay, But I haven't...
Acceptance - Okay

69

Stages of stress

Alarm reaction
stage of resistance
Exhaustion

70

Standard of care

Care that is expected to be provided by an EMT.
-How you should do it.

71

Standard precautions

Form of infection control - BSI

72

Standing Order

Authorizes EMT to perform particular skills in curtain situations.
-Without speaking to med director.

73

Status Epilepticus

Prolonged seizure or situation when person suffers two or more seizures without regaining full consciousness.

74

Stridor

High pitched sound from partially obstructed airflow in the upper airway.

75

Stoma

Permanent surgical opening in the neck through when the patient breaths.

76

Stroke Volume

Amount of blood ejected from the heart in one contraction.
Average = 60ml per contraction.

77

Sucking chest wound

Open chest wound which air is sucked into chest cavity.

78

Superficial Burn

1 degree burn, only involving epidermis.
-Reddening, sometimes swelling.

79

Superior

Toward the head.

80

Supine

Lying flat on back.

81

Syncope

Fainting.

82

Tarsals

Ankle Bones.

83

Tension Pneumothorax

Air that enters the chest cavity is prevented from escaping.

84

Tibia

Medial and larger bone of the lower leg.

85

Tidal Volume

Volume of air moved in one cycle of breathing.

86

Toddler

1yr-36 months (3yrs)
Vitals: HR 80-130/min
Respirations: 20-30/min
Systolic BP = 70-100

87

Tracheostomy

Surgical incision held open by a metal or plastic tube.

88

Thorax

The chest.

89

Tuberculosis

Infection that mostly settles in the lungs.
Highly contagious
Can be fatal

90

Ulna

Medial bone of forearm.

91

Universal Dressing

also called a bulky dressing
Used for profuse bleeding or if wound is large - also good for stabilizing objects.

92

Vein

Any blood vessel returning blood to the heart.

93

Venous Bleeding

Bleeding from a vein - dark red or maroon blood usually steady easy to control flow.

94

Ventricles

Lower chambers of the heart
right-oxygen poor blood to lungs
left-oxygen rich blood to body.

95

Vertebrae

33 bones of the spinal column.
Cervical - 7
Thoracic - 12
Lumbar - 5
Sacral - 5
Coccyx - 4

96

Zygomatic Arches

Cheek bones.

97

AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome)
HIV (Human immunodeficiency Virus)

AIDS = set of conditions that result when the immune system is attacked by HIV and unable to combat certain infections.

98

4 primary diseases of concern:

Hepatitis B
Hepatitis C
Tuberculosis (TB)
HIV/AIDS

99

Ventricular Fibrillation & Ventricular Tachycardia

Hearts electrical impulses are disorganized preventing the heart muscle from contracting normally.

Heartbeat is rapid - to rapid can cause chambers not to fill enough.

100

Tendons vs ligaments

Muscle to bone
vs
Bone to bone

101

Pulmonary Edema and Pedal Edema

Fluid in the lungs
and
Fluid in the feet/ankles.

102

Bradycardia and Tachycardia

Slow heart rate - usually below 60 beats per minute
Fast heart rate - usually above 100 beats per minute

103

Comminuted Fracture
Greenstick Fracture
Angulated Fracture

-Broken in several places.
-Incomplete Fracture.
-Segments fractured at an angle of each other.

104

Embryo & Fetus

The baby from fertilization to 8 weeks of development.

Baby from 8 weeks to birth.

105

Breech Presesntation + Limb Presentation

When the baby's buttocks or both legs appear first during birth.

When an infants limb protrudes first.

106

Hepatitis B+C

Infection causing inflammation of the liver.
-Acquired through contact with blood or other body fluids.
-Can live for many days in dried blood.
-Can be very deadly.

107

Auscultation & Palpation

Auscultation = Listening
Palpation = Touching or feeling

108

Libel VS Slander

False Information,
Libel - Written
Slander - Verbal

109

Peripheral Pulses & Central Pulses

Peripheral - Radial, brachial, posterior tibial and dorsalis pedis.

Central Pulse - Carotid and femoral

110

Pediatric vs Geriatric

Pertaining to patient who has yet to reach puberty.

Older patients typically 65 or older

111

systolic bp + diastolic bp

Systolic = pressure created in the arteries when left ventricle contracts and forces blood out into circulation.

Diastolic = Pressure in the arteries when the left ventricle is refilling.

112

Emergency Move
Urgent Move
Non-urgent move

Emergency - Moves without spinal precautions such as situations with fire, explosives, hazmat and electrical.

Urgent - Performed with spinal precautions in cases dealing with heat/cold or difficulty breathing, also a rapid extrication procedure.

Non-Urgent - No immediate threat to life.

113

Visceral Pain
Parietal Pain
Tearing Pain
Referred Pain

Visceral Pain - Poorly localized, dull pain
Parietal Pain - Localized, intense pain
Tearing Pain - Sharp pain, feelings of tearing
Referred Pain - Felt in location other than were it originated.

114

Ingested
Inhaled
Absorbed
Injected

Ingested - Swallowed
Inhaled - Breathing in
Absorbed - Through skin
Injected - By needle or teeth

115

Uppers & Downers

Stimulants such as amphetamines that excite the user.

Depressants - used for a more relaxed state of mind.

116

Dressing vs Bandage

Material used to cover a wound that helps control bleeding and prevent contamination.

Material used to hold a dressing in place.