Medicine: Labs Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Medicine: Labs Deck (46):
1

Hb

M: 14-17g/dL
F: 12-15

2

Hct

M: 40-50%
F: 35-45

3

WBC

4,000-10,000 cells/microliter

4

Platelets

250,000-400,000 cells/microliter

5

What platelet level constitutes spontaneous bleeding?

25,000-50,000

6

What platelet level constitutes cancelling an elective surgery?

<100,000

7

Lymphocytes

35%

8

Neutrophils-Bands

<5%

9

Neutrohils-Segs

60%

10

Eosinophils

5%

11

Basophils

5%

12

Monocytes

5%

13

What does a "left-shift" in PMNs (Bands) indicate?

Bacterial infection (>10%); hemorrhage

14

What does a "right-shift" (Segs) indicate?

Liver dz

15

How are Hb and Hct related?

For every 1 unit drop in Hb, Hct drops 3 units

16

Sodium (Na+)

135-145 mEq/L

17

Chloride (Cl-)

100-110 mEq/L

18

BUN (blood urea nitrogen)

5-20 mg/dL

19

Potassium (K+)

3.5-5 mEq/L

20

Bicarb (HCO3-)

25-30

21

Creatinine (Cr)

<1.1

22

Glucose

70-110 mg/dL

23

Cockcroft-Gault GFR Equation

[(140-age)xMass (kg)]/72xCr
*multiply by 0.85 for women

24

Creatinine Clearance

Normal=80-120 ml/min
Renal compromise= <80
Severe renal dz=10-20
Dialysis= <10

25

Normal urine output?

0.5-1 ml/kg/hr (1000-1600 ml/day)

26

Albumin

3.5-5 g/dL
Compromised wound healing and liver dz

27

Pre-albumin

15-30 mg/dL
Compromised wound healing

28

ALT (alanine aminotransferase)

0-35 U/L
Incr in liver dz

29

AST (aspartate aminotransferase)

8-20 U/L
Incr in liver dz and MI

30

ESR

0-30 mm/hr
Marker for infection and inflammation

31

CRP

0-10 mg/dL or <3 if high-sensitivity CRP
Marker for infection and inflammation

32

HbA1c (hemoglobin A1c)

4-6%
Indication of glucose control over past 3 months

33

No surgery if...

Glucose >200 mg/dL
Platelets <100,000 cells/microliter
Active infection

34

PTT (Patrial Thromboplastin Time)

25-35 seconds
Intrinsic pathway (I, II, V, VIII, IX, X, XI, XII)
Monitors heparin therapy

35

PT (Prothrombin Time)

11-13 seconds
Extrinsic pathway (I, II, V, VII, X)
Monitors warfarin therapy
Measure used to calculate INR

36

INR (International Normalized Ratio)

0.75-1.5
To monitor warfarin therapy and anticoagulation
INR of 2-3=anticoagulation

37

>10,000 WBCs indicates what?

Leukocytosis

37

Thrombin Time

10-14 seconds
Used to evaluate long PTT
Measures conversion of fibrinogen-->fibrin

38

<4,000 WBCs indicates what?

Leukopenia

39

What drugs or therapies can compromise platelet fxn?

-ASA
-Heparin/Lovenox
-HIT Syndrome
-Chemotherapy

40

What WBC is elevated in allergic or parasitic infections?

Eosinophils

41

What WBCs are indicated in viral infections?

Lymphocytes and monocytes

42

What WBCs are indicated in leukemia?

Lymphocytes

43

What lab values suggest compromised wound healing?

Low:
-Albumin
-Pre albumin
-Total lymphocyte count (TLC)

High:
-HbA1c

44

What is the significance of leukocyte esterase?

Detects RBC activity and is positive in infection

45

What is the significance of nitrites upon UA?

They are elevated, suggesting UTI bc bacteria convert nitrates, normally found in urine, to nitrites