Medicine, Public Health and the community Flashcards Preview

PCM III Exam I > Medicine, Public Health and the community > Flashcards

Flashcards in Medicine, Public Health and the community Deck (21):

What is meant by health?

“a state of complete physical, mental and social well being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.”


What did the Institute of medicine report do with their report The future of public health in 1988

—Expressed the need for Public Heath professionals  to establish a central mission and core functions.  Establishing a 4 part definition of public health.


What is the four part function of public health?

  1. Mission
  2. Substance
  3. Organizational framework
  4. Core functions


What are the mission, substance and organizational framework of public health?

—Mission: To fulfill society’s interest in assuring conditions in which people can be healthy.
—Substance: Organized community efforts aimed at the prevention of disease and the promotion of health.
—Organizational framework: Both activities undertaken within the formal structure of government and the associated efforts of private and voluntary organizations and individuals.


What are the three core functions?


Policy Development



When we say the following, what do we mean?



Policy Development

Assurance - Makin sure "it" happens

Assessment - knowing what needs to be done

Policy development - being part of the solution


What are the mission and vision of public health in the US today?


Health People Living in Healthy Communities


Promote physical and mental health


prevent disease, injury and disability


What are six things public health focus accomplishes?

—Prevents epidemics and the spread of disease
—Protects against environmental hazards
—Responds to disasters and assists communities in recovery
—Prevents injuries
—Promotes healthy behaviors
—Assures the quality and accessibility of health services


What are the assessment components of the ten essential services?


  1. —Monitor health status to ID community health problems
  2. —Diagnose and investigate health problems and health hazards in the community
  3. —Evaluate the effectiveness, accessibility and quality of services
  4. —Research for new insights and innovative solutions to health problems  efforts


What are the assurance components of the 10 essential services?


  1. —Enforce laws and regulations that protect health and ensure safety
  2. —Link people to personnel health services and
  3.      assure the provision of health care
  4. —Assure a competent public health and health care workforce


What is the policy development component of the 10 essential services?

developing policies and plans that support health


What were the three major eras in the public health history of the US?

  • Prior to 1949 - Battling Epidemics (Infectious Diseases, then Building  State and Local Infrastructure
  • 1950-1999 : Filling gaps in medical care delivery

  • 2000- present: Preparing for and responding to community health threats, manmade and natural


What did the Hill Burton Act of 1946 do?

Provided extensive funding to build hospitals


What were the big deal events associated with the 1950-1999 public health focus?

  • —Increased focus on the poor and access to care
  • —Expansion of local health departments to improve access for all
  • —Department of Health Education and Welfare , 1953
  • —Medicare and Medicaid programs established , 1965
  • —OSHA and EPA , 1970
  • —DHHS, Department of Health and Human Services, 1979
  • —1988 IOM redefines the basic core functions of P.H. 


What were the noteable events associated with the pre 1949 era of public health in the US?


  • —1790’s Yellow Fever outbreak, 1st Board of Health established in Philadelphia
  • —1872 APHA established, to reveal the causes of communicable diseases
  • —Many diseases from poor sanitation, hygiene and lack of education.
  • —Establishment of local and County public health departments
  • —Establishment of NIH and FDA (1930), SSA (1935), CDC  and Hill Burton Act (1946), WHO 1948


Medicaid and medicare were initiated in 1965.  What is medicaid?

How is it funded?

Who does it typically cover?

—Health Care for low income population (at or below poverty level)
—Partially state funded so criteria for eligibility varies from state to state
—May include the following: medicare patients, children, pregnant women, families living in poverty or any combination there of. 


What is medicare meant for?

What are parts A-D of medicare?

  • —Health Services for people > 65 (62-70) years of age and/or suffering from long term disability
  • —Part A- In patient: Hospital, Nursing Home, Hospice
  • —Part B-Outpatient Services, physicians , and medical supplies
  • —Part C- Supp. Insurance Plans , such as HMO or PPOs
  • —Part D- Rx Plans, drugs


What are the major events that are of note in the current public health era of the US?

  • —Response to the Anthrax scare ,
  • September 1999 and terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001.
  • —1999 Laboratory Response Network
  • —2001 Department of Homeland Security (DHS) as well as TSA
  • —Many other state and local public and private agencies
  • —Natural and Manmade disaster training at various levels


What are the major US public health achievements of the 20th century?

  • —Vaccinations
  • —Motor Vehicle Safety
  • —Safer Workplaces/Occupational Safety
  • —Control of Infectious Disease
  • —Decline in Deaths from CHD and CVA
  • —Safer and Healthier Foods
  • —Healthier Mothers and Babies
  • —Family Planning
  • —Chlorination and the Fluoridation of Drinking Water
  • —Recognition of Tobacco as a Health Hazard


What are the major current public health issues?


  • —Ongoing Obesity (Worldwide)
  • —(2013/4)Whooping Cough  and Measles
  • —MRSA
  • —West Nile Virus
  • —Pandemic Flu Threats
  • —Disparities in Health Care
  • —Unwanted pregnancies
  • —Ebola Virus/MERS/and other emerging diseases
  • —Disaster Preparedness