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Define inflammation.

A local physiological response to tissue injury.


Give a benefit of inflammation.

Inflammation can destroy invading micro-organisms and can prevent the spread of infection.


Give a disadvantage of inflammation.

Inflammation can produce disease and can lead to distorted tissues with permanently altered function.


Define exudate.

A protein rich fluid that leaks out of vessel walls due to increased vascular permeability.


What are the 4 outcomes of inflammation?

1. Resolution. 2. Suppuration. 3. Organisation (scar tissue formation).4. Progression onto chronic inflammation.


Give 6 causes of acute inflammation.

1. Microbial infections (bacteria and viruses).2. Chemicals (corrosives, acids/alkalis). 3. Physical agents (trauma, burns, frost bite).4. Hypersensitivity reactions (TB).5. Bacterial toxins. 6. Tissue necrosis.


What does viral infection result in?

Cell death due to intracellular multiplication.


What does bacterial infection result in?

The release of exotoxins (involved in the initiation of inflammation) or endotoxins.


Give 5 cardinal signs of inflammation.

1. Redness (rubor).2. Swelling (tumor).3. Pain (dolor).4. Heat (calor).5. Loss of function.


How can acute inflammation be diagnosed histologically?

By looking for the presence of neutrophil polymorphs.


Give 3 endogenous chemical mediators of acute inflammation.

1. Bradykinin.2. Histamine. 3. Nitric Oxide.


What are 4 systemic effects of acute inflammation?

1. Fever. 2. Feeling unwell. 3. Weight loss.4. Reactive hyperplasia of the reticuloendothelial system.


What cells are involved in chronic inflammation?

Macrophages and plasma cells (B and T lymphocytes).


What cell can form when several macrophages try to ingest the same particle?

Multinucleate giant cell.


Give 4 causes of chronic inflammation.

1. Primary chronic inflammation. 2. Transplant rejection. 3. Recurrent acute inflammation.4. Progression from acute inflammation.


Give examples of primary chronic inflammation.

1. Infective substances having resistance to phagocytosis e.g. TB, leprosy. 2. Endogenous materials e.g. uric acid crystals. 3. Exogenous materials e.g. asbestos. 4. Autoimmune diseases e.g. chronic gastritis, rheumatoid arthritis etc. 5. Other chronic inflammatory diseases e.g. chronic inflammatory bowel disease.


In which type of inflammation would you see neutrophil polymorphs?

Acute inflammation.


What are some macroscopic features of chronic inflammation?

1. Chronic ulcer.2. Chronic abscess cavity.3. Granulomatous inflammation. 4. Fibrosis.


What is granulation tissue?

Granulation tissue is composed of small blood vessels in a connective tissue matrix with myofibroblasts. It is important in healing and repair.


Define granuloma.

An aggregate of epithelioid histocytes.


Give an example of a granulomatous disease.

TB, leprosy, Crohn's disease and sarcoidosis.


The activity of what enzyme in the blood can act as a marker for granulomatous disease?

Angiotensin converting enzyme.


What kind of disease is TB?

A granulomatous disease.


What is the difference between resolution and repair?

Resolution is when the initiating factor is removed and the tissue is able to regenerate. In repair, the initiating factor is still present and the tissue is unable to regenerate.


Name 5 types of cells capable of regeneration.

1. Hepatocytes. 2. Osteocytes.3. Pneumocytes. 4. Blood cells. 5. Gut and skin epithelial cells.


Name 2 types of cells that are incapable of regeneration.

1. Myocardial cells. 2. Neuronal cells.


Define abscess.

Acute inflammation with a fibrotic wall.


Define thrombosis.

Formation of a solid mass from blood constituents in an intact vessel in the living.


Give 2 reasons why thrombosis formation is uncommon.

1. Laminar flow. 2. Non sticky endothelial cells.


What are the 3 factors that can lead to thrombosis formation?

1. Change in vessel wall. 2. Change in blood constituents. 3. Change in blood flow.