Meiji Restoration Midterm 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Meiji Restoration Midterm 2 Deck (36)
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1
Q

Modernity

A

technology, multiple transitions, Industrial economies
Increase in strength of the gov. driven by technology+transition population concentration
new economic systems, organizations, ways of living
Reject tradition , rationalization and professionalization

2
Q

Rise of the Tokugawa In Japan

A

Japan not entirely isolated, increasingly integrated into Asian markets in the early modern period able to regulate foreign contact through Tokugawa and geography

3
Q

Influence of the Emperor+ Ruling Families
Who is he aligned with
Before and After Tokugawa

A

Influence of Emperor based out of imperial court in Kyoto. Rarely extend out of palace walls. Controls everything in theory but is a figurehead in reality.
In countryside, Regional Ruling families (Daimyos) employ private armies of samurai-further civil unrest
Emperor is aligned with Tokugawa because they have the strongest military

4
Q

Tokugawa Establishment Tipping Point

A

March 24th 1603, Tokugawa Ieyasu defeats all war lords. Either eradicates or pacifies rival samurai and Daimyo’s.
Emperor retains ceremonial functions, Ieyasu and his heirs rule Japan for next 250 years
Chosu, Tosa and Satsuma cast out of imperial palace for opposing Tokugawa
Castle moved to Edo

5
Q

*****Warrior Clans Opposing Tokugawa

A

Choshu, Tosa, Satsuma- shogun families. last 3 major clans left and in the 16th-17th century consolidate power
Outer Daimyo, political marginalization

6
Q

China vs Britain

A

1793 cultural misunderstanding, British cannot change the trade dynamic
Opium wars, UK vs Qing Dynasty 1839 over trade
“force” China open in a colonial sense

7
Q

Unequal Treaties

A

advantage for imperial powers
granted extraterritoriality: law of the colony does not apply to foreigners.
Treaty of Nanking first unequal treaty

8
Q

Barbarian

A

= Any foreigner

9
Q

Japanese Trade

and Reactions To West

A

Still trading with China and Korea , can see the Western influence
Contact with Dutch traders
Initially foreigners are welcome so Japanese can acquire guns.
Missionaries scare Tokugawa Shogunite, scared of invasion
1609- end of formal trade contacts with West except for Dutch
1614- expel all missionaries

10
Q

Importance of Nagasaki

A

Fuel depot for ships travelling to San Francisco

11
Q

Japan Under Tokugawan Rule

A

Prolonged peace and prosperity because there is no ore fighting between war lords.
They rule through a central bureaucracy and feudal alliances.

12
Q

Education

A

18th century, education allows more Western influence. books are translated from English to Japanese
Enlightenment Era

13
Q

“Opening Of Japan”

Only Foreign Contact Prior

A

Commodore Perry from US July 1853
Edo Bay, attempt to shock Japan into submission
Only foreign contact prior to this was Nagasaki
Arrival of black ships, demand meeting with Tokugawa and Shogun to get open ports.
Tokugawa shocked, don’t know what to do, tell them they will decide in a year
(don’t have a navy)

14
Q

HMS NEMESIS

A

British steamboat equipped with modern artillery sweeps coastal cities resulting in the 1842 Treaty of Nanjing which opened ports along South China

15
Q

Modernity In Japan

A

Increasing interconnections, see’s Chinese instability . Integration and the importance of world markets

16
Q

li Naosuke

A

proposes using Dutch relations to buy time to rebuild military.
Play one barbarian off the other
Samurai bored, nothing to do thanks to rule of Tokugawa

17
Q

Treaty of Kanagawa

A

1854- open up to west specifically US

18
Q

Harris Treaty

Samurai+Daimyo reaction

A

4 new trading ports, establishes American trade relations and grants Americans extraterritoriality.
As soon as America opens door, everybody wants in
Violence against Shogunate and foreigners living in port cities
Samurai unhappy at accommodation, want to fight
Enables Outer Daimyo to organize against the shogun

19
Q

Shogun

A

military leader

20
Q

Inner vs Outer Daimyo

A

Imperialist Faction= Outer. Chosu, Tosa, Satsuma blame Tokugawa Shogun for letting foreigners in and not fulfilling their security duties
Inner Daimyo and Tokugawa Shogun are within palace walls. Return political power to emperor preemptively
Harris Treaty- signifies Shogunate failure

21
Q

Escalation of Violence in Politics

A

1859-1868

22
Q

Loyalist vs Tokugawa

A

June 25th 1863 Loyalists assume Tokugawa will expel all foreigners
Tokugawa are actually beginning negotiations with foreigners on that date.
Loyalists- name of the emperor, restore power to him
1863-1865 clear that any gov must include prominent emperor, no longer ceremonial

23
Q

Sankin-Kotai

A

feudal lords had to divide time between imperial court and fief. ensured no one would become to powerful

24
Q

Bunkyu Reforms

A

1862 military reform and political realignment. abolish sankin-kotai
developing navy and incresing purchases of western weapons and customs
not substantial or comprehensive enough to be effective
NEED $$$
resistance from samurai

25
Q

Treaty Port Deadlines

A

1859- 4 treaty ports

1863- 4 more ports

26
Q

Sonno Joi

A

Honour the Emperor, expel the Barbarian

27
Q

Result of 1863 Misunderstanding between Loyalists and Tokugawa

A

Loyalists fire on all foreign vessels entering ports

American ships destroy forts

28
Q

Struggle Between Regional Powers

A

SW Japan- Satsuma and Choshu embrace Western Military styles and acquire Western technology
Chosu extreme desire to expel foreigners Satsuma not as extreme due to alignment with French and technology

29
Q

Choshu vs Tokugawa

A

June 1863- angry that Tokugawa won’t close treaty ports.
Sept 1864- hatch a plan to kidnap the emperor, assumed they set Kyoto on fire. Imperial court orders retaliation.
1864 Punitive Expidition

30
Q

Saigo Takamori

A

Satsuma leader. Joins expedition but doesn’t actually fight.
1864 negotiate alliance with Choshu to assure their survival. Chosu see Satsuma offering a way to acquire western technology.
Powerful outer Daimyo

31
Q

2nd Expedition

A

against Choshu by Tokugawa. Sustain a military defeat.

Nov 1867 Tokugawa step down but are still powerful

32
Q

Boshin War

A

1867-1868

Coup Jan 3rd 1868, brief contest by Tokugawa but defeated by Satsuma and Choshu

33
Q

Meiji Restoration

A

1868-1912 Emperor Mutsuhito
Shift between old ruling classes
Tokugawa briefly resist but are defeated
Based on support from SW provines. Fill all important positions, not clear it will survive
Goal: rebirth Japan along Western lines. End of shogunate and path for future reform
Emperor to Edo
REVOLUTION FROM ABOVE

34
Q

Charter Oath

A
April 1868, abolishes the samurai class and paves way from continued borrowing from the west
Aimed to demilitarize and appeal to custom with a new spin- give up power to the emperor
35
Q

Feudal Structure

A

Abolished in 1871, all lands go to emperor
no set plan, lots of trial and error
ultimate goal, strong state

36
Q

Japan in 1890’s

A

select borrowing of best instiutions and customs from West

strong imperial and regional power due to the industrial revolution and centralization of government