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Flashcards in Russian Revolution Midterm 2 Deck (52)
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1
Q

Imperial Russia

A

Geographic area
caught between Europe and Asia
Seen as a frontier country on the margin

2
Q

Origin of the Russian State

Identity

A

mid 15th century onward, territorial expansion
Russian identity culturally distinct and isolated from western European developments
Economy and Industry lag

3
Q

Peter the Great

A

1682-1725 attempted to westernize empire. Reform that impacted all aspects of Russian life
Trying to gain access to an ice free coast

4
Q

18th Century Russia

A

European Great Power- expansion and diplomacy in European state system. Alliances
Fending off Napolean
Facade, Russia remains steadfastly autocratic, economy lagged behind Western Europe, population remained in state of serfdom

5
Q

Russian Economy

A

economy lag, industrial revolution arrived late, and progressed slowly. Serfdom majority, poor education

6
Q

19th Century

A

Liberal ideology trickling in from Europe, sought to apply it to Russian conditions

7
Q

Decemberist Revolt

A

Dec. 1825- first revolutionary group against the Tsarists regime. Coup detat
Quickly repressed by Nicholas I
It failed because it was unorganized, had no leadership and had no support from the masses

8
Q

Karl Marx

A

1818-1883
German philosopher
called for a two stage revolutionary process. Class consciousness organized by elite to overthrow absolute monarchies. Eventually the workers overthrow capitalist class and form a dictatorship of proletariat. Socialism to communism
Not really applicable to multi ethnic, agrarian Russia

9
Q

George Pelkhanov

A

1856-1918 Russian Marxist wanted to apply theory to Russia with an adaptation
Workers central to revolution, transplant slowly in to Russia
Russian workers will not adopt on their own
Foundation for secret socialists parties (Vladmir Ulianov Lenin)

10
Q

Vanguard

A

elite group to spread political ideology among workers
history needs a push
Daniel Bell

11
Q

Vladimir Lenin

A

Russian radical applied Marxist theory to social, economic and political conditions in Russia
1) alliance of industrial workers with peasants
2) promoted centralist authoritarian party as central to workers resolution
3) rejected two stage revolution
Russian Social Democratic Party Split between Lenin and Pelkhanov but Lenin had majority

12
Q

Alexander II

A

Alexander the Liberator

paid more attention to neglected domestic issues, liberalized education (made it available to all classes)

13
Q

Imperial Decrees

A
1861 and 1861 abolished serfdom 
Abolished because: fear of a peasant rebellion, an increased public sentiment for emancipation
Crimean War (1853-1856) revealed the deficiencies of serfdom (condition of recruits)
Economy lagged behind, defeats in war damaged prestige of regime, encouraged reform
14
Q

Zemstvos

A

elected self governing bodies on the communal, district and provincial levels
became outlets for liberal ideas

15
Q

Tsar Nicholas II

A

modest and polite but not suited to lead
Married to German princess Alexandra of Hesse- moral conservative, mystic and trusted advisory
Suspicious of liberalism and democracy
Blamed Peter the Great for the impact of the enlightenment

16
Q

Problems that lead to Dissatisfaction with the Tsar

A

1) Land question and the imperial decrees that abolished serfdom. Decrees didn’t free them from village commune
Land shared collectively, no peasant had right to land, supervised by communes. Hampered peasants and divided classes
Heavy taxes and redemption payments. POVERTY
2) Nationality question. empire composed of many ethnic groups. Alienation of non-russian. Russification “Russia for Russians”
3) Industrialization and the meergence of a large industrial working class. inadequate working conditions, labour exploitation, view Tsar as protector but view shifts to oppressor
4) Russo Japanese War 1904-1905.
5) The First World War 1914-1918

17
Q

Russo Japanese War

A

1904-1905 Unrest at home, political demonstrations and strikes by industrial workers in St. Petersburg
Dealt with using violence

18
Q

Bloody Sunday Massacre

A

Jan 9 1905 mass demonstrations at Winter Palace to Tsar on behalf of workers. Continue to march despite warnings
Violent put downs
Change of view of Tsar not father and protector

19
Q

October Manifesto

A

Oct 17th 1905 addressed grievances. Bill of Rights, Legislative Assembly: Duma - elected deputies Upper House- Council of state appointed or elected

20
Q

Results of 1905 Uprising

A

dress rehearsal for 1917
no new ruler, no class power transfer, no shift in foreign policy, no significant change to the socio-economic
Workers and peasants don’t have support of armed forces and bureaucrats
Creation of Duma and October Manifesto
Duma had little power
Tsarist regime survived but shaken and weakened

21
Q

Fall of Romanovs

A

WW1 coupled with public perceptions corruption lead to dynasty’s downfall.
Serious defeats undermine morale and the legitimacy of the regime

22
Q

WW1, Fall of Romanovs

A

Nicholas II takes control of army, leaves Alexandra in power

Weak Russian Navy; Economy, shortage of consumer goods lead to 1916 strikes

23
Q

Alexandra and Rasputin

A

Alexandra under influence of healer mystic Rasputin. predicted third child’s medical episodes. Reflects badly on ruling family. Rumours of corrupt Romanovs allying with Germans
Alexandra is German, worsens political situation
Imperialists assassinate Rasputin

24
Q

Provisional Government & its Formation

A

Opposition parties organized in Duma against Tsar. War opportunity to seize power.
Tsar unwilling to address the domestic crisis
Demonstrations in Petrograd and Moscow, womens workers, factory workers
Duma (land owners) appoint a Provisional Government March 1917 with popular support under George Lvov and later Alexander Kerensky
Tsar abdicated throne March 15 1917

25
Q

Tsarist System Collapses

A

failure to over come Russian backwardness
complacent about serious reform
late industrialization
neglected peasantry
alienation of enlightened members of society
impact of the war rapidly exposing inadequacies of regime
weak leadership

26
Q

Napoleonic Wars
Crimean War
Russo Japanese War

A

1805-1815
1854-1856
1904-1905

27
Q

Petrograd Garrison

A

refuses to break up protesters. becomes Petrograd Soviet: union, one of many. leaders mesh with garrison

28
Q

Petrograd Soviet Orders

A

1) instruct soldiers and sailors to only obey orders countersigned by the Soviet

29
Q

Provision Government vs Petrograd Soviet

A

provisional government provides legal representation to support war effort whereas the petrograd soviet represents workers unions and continue to push for social and political change. don’t necessarily want the war to end

30
Q

Vladmir Lenin

A

Returns to Petrograd from exile
Radical utilitarian with flexible beliefs
looking to shift political tenure in Russia

31
Q

April Theses

A

April 6th 1917 outlined the basic Bolshevik platform “Land, Bread and Peace” all power to the soviets.

1) tailored message to appeal to soldiers. end war now (specific view held only be Lenin)
2) Bolsheviks as only alternative to Provisional Government. Redistribute land and make break available

32
Q

April Theses Contradictions

A

Lenin doesn’t want to share power, wants to smash existing parties and bureaucracy
Doesn’t want to redistribute land, wants to collectivize it.
Isn’t looking for peace, is looking to spread the socialist revolution through violent means
Treats politics like warfare

33
Q

Bolsheviks

A

L wing coalition, minority socialist. 1905 set stage for political parties to emerge
Seize power in Oct/Nov 1917

34
Q

March Protests

A

Lenin perceives them as attainment of class consciousness
Step 1 complete
Argues Russia is a part of the world wide capitalist system

35
Q

Lenin and Vangaurd

A

Shift political discussion to the left

acceptable parameters shift

36
Q

Lenin v Marx

A

Lenin- you reach the masses not by reason but by making them fear the alternative
Marx- enlightenment thinker. accorded to enlightenment principles, people use reason

37
Q

Failed Coup Attempt

A

July by the Bolsheviks
Due to pressure from Britain and France, the Provisional Government launches a disastrous and ill equipped military offensive
Critical space for Lenin and Bolsheviks
At the same time, conservative military coup-fails
Lenin wants to steer direction of street power but Kerensky able to exert control over cities
Almost shatters Bolsheviks
Lenin exile, Trotsky jail

38
Q

Leon Trotsky

A

not supportive of street action revolutions.

Sept 1917 out on bail.

39
Q

Kerensky

A

fears monarchist plot more than he does another plot from the left.

40
Q

Direction of Coup Attempts by Trotsky

A

Determining loyalty of army
Favors offensive strategy- provoke provisional government in to a response that brands them as counterrevolutionary. Secure loyalty Petrograd garrison

41
Q

2nd Congress of Soviets

A

October 25th 1917- support Bolsheviks
a union of unions
Trotsky wants to capitalize on votes from the 2nd Congress of Soviets

42
Q

Elections

A

Nov 12th 1917

Nov 28th 1917 formal meeting

43
Q

Lenin & Election

A

Lenin thinks it is a bad idea, don’t have enough support in countryside. elect another Kerensky
doesn’t believe people are capable of reason

44
Q

Bolsheviks Seize Power

A

before 2nd soviet congress so that they can endorse Bolshevik rule
We can provoke Provisional government to take action against 2nd Congress of Soviets under the guise of protecting the revolution
Regimental Committees urge Petrograd Garrison to support Soviets. Home front and battle front must coincide. Military says they must follow Soviet orders
Bolsheviks seize post office, radio, winter palace, bloodless coup.

45
Q

Bolsheviks & Elected Assembly

A

Bolsheviks lose election but delay meeting. Don’t allow them to meet, no power

46
Q

Bolsheviks in Power

A

World wide revolution doesn’t break out

Problems of governing-Russia still at war till 1921, Politics still factionalized, Economy still in disarray

47
Q

German vs Russia

A

Germans seek punitive peace, want the black soil region.
Lenin send Trotsky to negotiate, calls Germany’s bluff and walks away without signing peace agreement against Lenin’s wishes
1918 sign peace after Germany ramps up war effort. concedes land

48
Q

Economic Disaster

A

1918-1919 economic disaster after attempts to control countryside. Famine and transportation failures

49
Q

Joseph Stalin vs Lenin

A

second revolution.
Lenin inclined to make concessions but Stalin wants to remake Russia 1927, rapid top down industrialization directed by state.
Private power abolished
Agrarian to Industrial
Stalin achieves this during Great Depression

50
Q

Lenin’s Steps After Worldwide Revolution

A

end war with germany
creation of COMINTERN in 1919
Cheka (secret police)
Workers and Peasants (the red) to fight in the civil war and consolidate Bolshevik power

51
Q

Civil War

Soviet Union

A

1917-1921

1922-1991

52
Q

Soviet Union after Lenin

A

Lenin’s death in 1924
Leon Trotsky vs Josef Stalin
Stalin exiles and execute all opponents and centralizes power in his hands
Collectivization of Agriculture- 1928-1920
Great Purges 1935-1938