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Flashcards in Membrane Potential and Excitation Deck (72):
1

Separation of positive and negative charges is what type of energy?

Potential

2

Energy that allows separated charges to move freely. This flow is called current, amps.

Kinetic Energy

3

The force which slows down current flow.

Resistance

4

A substance which inhibits current flow

Insulator

5

A substance which promotes current flow

Conductor

6

Current = ?

V/R

7

Why does current flow occur in living systems?

Ions flow!

8

Where do they flow across? (What is the insulator of charge separation?)

Membrane - separates charges

9

The integral, transmembrane proteins which serve as conductors in living systems that allow ions to flow when open

Channels

10

Leakage channels that are typically always open that allow ions to flow through them

Passive Channels

11

Gated channels that only open when stimulated

Active Channels

12

Type of gated channel that is opened by a chemical . Opens when chemical binds to transmembrane protein/receptor to provide pathway for ions to flow inside or outside membrane

Chemically gated channel

13

Type of active channel that is opened by a change in potential energy, there is a change in the voltage distribution across membrane due to ions, which opens channel to allow ions to flow across membrane

Voltage Gated Channel

14

Current flow depends on two factors. What are they?

Electrical Charge Movement
Chemical Diffusion

15

Current flow factor where ions that are charged will move toward an area that contains an opposite charge

Electrical Charge Movement

16

Current flow factor where chemicals diffuse from an area of high concentration to low concentration

Chemical Diffusion

17

Together, electrical charge movement and chemical diffusion are known as...

Electrochemical Gradient

18

Flow of ions across membranes is controlled by this, which conducts the current and carries the kinetic energy used to do the work of the action potential

Electrochemical Gradient

19

It is created by unequal concentrations of ions of both charges that exist in a narrow band around each side (cytoplasmic and extracellular) of the plasma membrane.

Resting Membrane Potential

20

Potential energy is created due to the chemical and electrical forces that develop across the membrane

Different ions, different concentrations of each ion, different charges on ions

Resting Membrane Potential

21

Charged separation is referred to as _________, it is the basis of all electrical conductivity of cells capable of conducting action potential

Polarization of the membrane

22

What are the units of charge separation?

What is the orientation (outside with respect to inside or inside with respect to outside?)

millivolts

Inside with respect to outside

23

What is typical cell membrane charge, or the resting membrane potential?

-70mV

24

Note: cell as whole is neutral, but separation of charges occurs where?

At the membrane

25

Specific ions separate themselves at different concentrations immediately around the membrane, creating (generation and maintenance of RMP)

Polarization

26

Na, K, Cl are capable or incapable of moving outside/inside the membrane?

Negatively charged proteins are fixed/capable of moving?

Capable

Fixed. Only positively charged ions can move.

27

Gnereates concentration difference for Na+ and K+, require ATP and translocate ions against concentration gradient

ATPase pump

28

How much NA and K are pumped in or out simultaneously of an ATPase pump?

3Na+ pumped out

2K pumped in

29

What type of port is the ATPase? How many ions are moving?

antiport, 5

30

There are many pumps in the plasma membrane which pump all the time

!

31

Pumping prevents what from being reached?

Equilibrium

32

How does it prevent equilibrium?

Prevents equilibrium from being reached to reach electrochemical gradient

33

Are there more or less K and Na passive channels in the plasma membrane?

How else is it maintained?

K channel>Na channel

K can move more freely out of the membrane

34

Why does K move outside the cell?

Because it is clumped inside the cell, tends to want to move out

35

Why does Na want to move in?

Because it is clumped outside cell, but can't come in as easily as K can move out

36

Why doesn't K (positively charged) want to stay in the more negatively charged cell?

Because of the force of the concentration gradient

37

While most cells maintain the resting membrane potential throughout their lifetime, certain cells change it - like nerve and muscle cells. What do they have?

Gated Channels

38

These can be chemical or voltage, and open and close in response to stimuli. They allow ions to flow across a membrane

Gated Channels

39

Cells which remain at rest have small or large amounts of ions moving back and forth?

Small, RMP stays the same.

40

Cells that cannot alter potential do not have

Gated Channels

41

A cell where charge is separated across a membrane, like RMR

Polarized Cell

42

Not polarized cell, charges have been allowed to follow. Potential energy = 0

Depolarized Cell

43

A cell that is more polarized than resting potential. Potential energy is greater

Hyperpolarized Cell

44

A cell whose polarity has returned to baseline. It could return from being hyperpolarized or depolarized

Repolarized Cell

45

Returning from hyperpolarized = increase or decrease in potential energy?
Returning from depolarized = increase of decrease in potential energy?

Decrease

Increase

46

Two types of mechanisms of change in plasma membrane potential

Graded Potential
Action Potential

47

These events involve movement of ions across the plasma membrane in opposite directions to change potential energy into kinetic energy across the membrane

Graded Potential and Action Potential

48

Both graded and action potential involve movement of ions across the plasma membrane in opposite directions to change the potential energy across the membrane. How do they differ?

The amount of ions that move and the type of membrane channel which opens

49

A few ions cross the membrane, chemically gated, still enough to change potential energy, gives you what?
-Note: limited to small section of the membrane

Graded potential

50

Voltage gated channels, many ions crossing the membrane, results in a large potential
Note: not limited to small section, travels entire length of the cell

Action potential

51

What type of channels exist in cells capable of conducting graded potentials?

Graded potentials

52

Is the area that changes potential large or small in graded potentials?

Do many or a few ions move across the membranes?

small

A few

53

Can graded potentials depolarize and/or hyperpolarize? What determines this?

Both. It is determined by which ions are moving across the membrane (which chemically gated channels)

54

When a cell is depolarized, do ions move in or out of the cell?

What about hyperpolarization?

Ions move in when depolarized (+ charges neutralize negative charge of cell)

Ions move out when polarized

55

What type of channels do cells capable of performing action potentials contain in their plasma membranes?

Voltage-gated channels.

56

Voltage gated channels in action potentials are specific for a single ion. Cells with voltage gated channels will have two types of channels for each of the two different ions, what are they?

Note: Both are REQUIRED for the action potential

Na, K

57

In action potentials, different ions move in opposing directions across the cell membrane. It creates a _____, or ion flow, which travels down the length of the cell membrane

Current

58

Action potentials are often initiated by ______ at a different area of the membrane within the same cell

Graded Potentials

59

Normally there are far more or far less voltage gated channels than chemically gated channels?

Far more voltage gated channels

60

The 1st phase of action potential consisting of closed gated channels. Leaky channels still allow NA an K to move, ATPase move as well. Both maintain RMP.

Resting Potential

61

Second phase of action potential consisting of depolarization, chemically gated channels open that initiates the phase which depolarizes membrane and causes Na+ voltage gated channels to open

(technically polarize cell with positive charge but call it depolarization)

Active Phase (aka Depolarization)

62

Active phase where Na+ channels close, and the K+ voltage channels open. Causes K+ to flow out of the cell because of large collection of positive charges in interior of membrane (electrochemical gradient)

Chemically gated channels have already closed

Active Phase: Repolarization

63

Final phase of action potential, K channels stay open a while and polarizes past RMP (more than -70 mV)

Active Phase: Hypoerpolarization

64

Should RMP have a ______ amount of Na+ outside the cell and a ______ amount of K inside the cell

Higher Na+ outside the cell
Higher K+ inside the cell

65

What returns Na+ ions that flowed into cell at depolarization to the outside of the cell to reestablish RMP at the end of action potential?

ATPase

66

What are common characteristics of cells that conduct action potential

Long and thin cells

67

Can the message go down the cell in two directions?

Give an example of tissue where it goes in two directions, and one example of tissue where the message goes in one direction

Yes.

Skeletal muscle - two directions

Nerve cell - one direction

68

Refers to the fact that you must have enough stimulus (Na ions flowing across the membrane during depolarization) to open the voltage gated channels.

If there is not enough chemical stimulus, not enough sodium will enter the cell. Graded potential does not reach necessary stimulus to open voltage gated channels

Action Potential Threshold

69

Once _______ channels open, the A.P. goes. It's all or nothing.

Voltage gated channels

70

Period of time where all ions need to be returned to baseline locations. Occurs after AP is completed, after hyperpolarizing or repolarizing the membrane. Refers to time when NA and K ATPases are working at restoring membrane back to original ion concentration

Refractory Periods

71

Refractory period immediately after AP stimulus has passed through. Na and K ATPase haven't had enough time to catch up

Absolute

72

Occurs later than the absolute refractory period, Na and K ATPases have had a little time to work, a very large stimulus can generate an action potential along membrane

Relative Refractory Period