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Psychology Unit 1 > Memory > Flashcards

Flashcards in Memory Deck (21):

What three parts are in the multi store model of memory?

The sensory buffer
The short term memory
The long term memory


Information in the sensory buffer is only taken further if we pay attention to it. True or false?



How many digits can we hold in the short term memory?



How long does the short term memory last?

15-30 seconds / 18 seconds


How do we get things into our long term memory?

Rehearsal and repeating


How long does our long term memory last?

Potentially forever


What is the reconstructive model of memory?

Where we 'reconstruct' what we think we saw or processed


Examples of the reconstructive model of memory

Bartlett - the war of the ghosts

Allport and Postman - white man and black man on train, white man had knife, people remembered the black man having it


What are schemas?

Pockets of memory that hold information about a particular thing

For example, picturing a cat or a tree is activating our schema


What is the levels of processing theory of memory?

1. Structural - processing things in relation to the way they look
2. Phonemic/phonetic - processing things in relation to the way they sound
3. Semantic - processing things in relation to what they mean


Is this an example of structural, phonemic or semantic memory?

Is the following word in upper case?



Is this an example of structural, phonemic or semantic memory?

Does the following word rhyme with water?



Is this an example of structural, phonemic or semantic memory?

Does the following word fit into the sentence: "______" is a type of fruit."



Explain flanker and cunitz experiment
- the multi store model of memory

Aim: to test whether short term memory has a limited capacity

Method: showed 46 army men words projected on a screen every three seconds. The list consisted of fifteen words. They either recalled the words straight away or did 10 / 30 seconds of counting backwards in threes

Results: they remembered better without counting

Conclusion: the short term memory has a limited capacity


What did Bartlett do?

Aim: test the idea of reconstructive memories

Method: had participants read a passage then pass the information on to someone else, who passed it on to someone else and so on. He used a Native American story called "War of the Ghosts"

Results: after the story had been passed through six people it had changed in many ways. It was much shorter and sounded much more like English culture

Conclusion: the schema reconstructed the memories we were uncertain of


What did Craik and Tulving do?

Aim: to rest the levels of processing theory

Method: showed participants questions for 200ms where they has to answer yes or no. After this, the participants were given a typed list of 180 words (of which only 60 they had seen) and had to state which ones they recognised

Results: upper/lower case letters were recalled the least well. Rhyming words were recalled in the middle, and sentences were recalled the best

Conclusion: the findings support the levels of processing


What is proactive interference?

When information you already know interferes with new information, so you forget the new information


What is retroactive interference?

New learning interferes with previous learning


What happened to HM?

His temporal lobes were damaged and his long term memory was permanently damaged


What happened to Clive Wearing?

He could not make new memories


What did Loftus and Palmer do?

Aim: investigate whether language can affect memory of a car crash

Method: showed 45 students a film of a car crash. Then asked how fast did the car hit / smash the other car

Results: participants who heard smashed rated the car as going much faster and even said there was broken glass

Conclusion: leading questions DO affect eye witness testimony