Who is Clive Wearing?
A man who became severely amnesic after a viral infection, with only a few seconds of memory, and lacking the ability to form new memories. He only remembers his second wife, yet he can play the piano and conduct a choir despite having no recollection of having received a musical education.
Who was Phineas Gage?
An iron road was driven completely through his head, and he lived for 12 years afterwards, although his personality was claimed to be significantly damaged. "The man with the whole in his head."
What is cognitive psychology?
The study of how people learn, structure, store and use knowledge- essentially how people think about the world around them.
What do cognitive psychologists believe?
That human behaviour can best be explained if we first understand the mental processes that underline behaiour.
What is memory?
Human memory can most broadly be defined as the process by which we retain information about events that have happened in the past.
What stores does the multistore memory model contain?
- Sensory memory - Short Term Memory - Long term Memory
What is sensory memory according to the multistore memory model?
Initial contact for stimuli. It is only capable of retaining information for a very short time.
What is short term memory according to the multistore memory model?
- The information we are currently aware of or thinking about. The information found in short term memory comes from paying attention to sensory memories.
What is long term memory according to the multistore memory model?
Continual storage of information which is largely outside of our awareness, but can be called into working memory to be used when needed.
What is semantic memory?
Concerns facts taken independent of context. Such as dates and trivia.
What is episodic memory?
More personal memories, such as associations of a particular place or time.
What is procedural memory?
Concerned with learning motor skills.
What did Cowan say about short term memory?
(2001) he reviewed a variety of studies on the capacity of short term memory and argued that it is more limited (to 4 chunks)
What did Vogel et al say about visual information?
(2001) He looked at capacity for visual information and found a limit of 4 items.
What are the strengths of the multi-store memory model?
- Distinguishes between different memory stores, which is supported by case studies and experiments.
What are the weaknesses of the multi-store memory model?
- Doesn't explain why we remember things we haven't elaborately rehearsed. - Some disagree with the idea of a unitary store, without separate stores for acoustic, semantic etc. - Doesn't explain the apparent interlink between short term memory and long term memory.
What did Baddeley & Hitch believe about memory?
They believed that memory is not just one store but a number of different stores. They didn't believe STM was a unitary store, and saw LTM as a more passive store that holds previously learned material for use by the STM when needed.
What is the word-length effect?
The phonological loop explains why the word-length effect occurs. It is the fact that people cope between with short words than long words in working memory.
What experiment did Baddeley do on the word-length effect?
He did an experiment to see whether one sylable (short words) or long words are remembered better. It is harder to remember a list of long words as opposed to short words, as the phonological loop holds the amount of information you can say in 1.5-2 seconds (Baddeley et al 1975), and therefore inhibits rehearsal of longer words.
What can cause the word length effect to disappear?
If a person is given an articulatory suppression task (the, the, the, while reading the words), as this repetitive task ties up the articulatory process and means you can't rehearse shorter words quicker than longer words. This provided evidence for the working memory model.
What study for Baddeley et al (1975) do to investigate the visio-spatial sketchpad?
Participants were given a visual tracing task (they had to track a moving light with a pointer). At the same time they were given one of two other tasks; 1. Describe the angels on the letter F 2. Perform a verbal task
What was the results of Baddeley et al (1975) investigation on the visuo-spatial sketchpad?
Task 1 was very difficult, but not task 2, presumably because the second task involved different components (or store systems). This is also evidence related to the effects of doing two tasks using the same or different components which suffers the working memory model.
What is short term memory?
Memory that lasts for approximately 18 seconds. It can hold up to 7+/- 2 items, and stores information acoustically.
What is long term memory?
Memory that is thought to be unlimited in how long it can hold information and how much it can hold. It stores information semantically (by meaning.)
What is duration?
How long memory lasts.
What was Peterson and Peterson's experiment on STM & duration?
Aim: To discover the duration of STM Participants: 24 students. Experimenter said a nonsense trigram (three letters randomly put together), followed by a three digit number. Participants counter back in three's from this number until told to stop. This was called the retention interval (time between hearing information and having to recall it). After the retention interval they were asked to recall the nonsense trigram.
What were Peterson's and Peterson's findings on their experiment about STM & duration?
Findings: After a 3 second interval, 90% of trigrams were recalled, after an 18 second interval, 2% was recalled. Conclusion: STM has a duration of 18 seconds.
What is the hawthorne effect?
When participants act differently because of the added attention of being in a study.
What was Bahrick et al's study on LTM & duration?
Aims: To identify the duration of LTM Participants: 400 people aged 17-74 Procedure: Participants asked to recall their graduating class: - Free recall- recall any names they remember off the top of their heads - Photo recognition- use pictures of graduating class to jog memory of names - Name recognition- select names of people from graduating class from a list of lots of names.
What was the findings of Bahrick et al's study on LTM & duration?
After 15 years: Free recall (60%), Picture (90%), Name (90%) After 48 years: Free recall (30%), Picture (70%), Name (80%) Therefore we have unlimited duration, and if that is the case we must also have unlimited capacity.