Flashcards in Memory Deck (68):
Describe coding for the sensory register
Sensory memory stores each of our five sense
Main ways are ICONIC MEMORY (visual) and ECOHIC MEMORT (auditory)
Describe coding for short term memory
Mainly acoustic coding
Describe coding for long term memory
Semantically similar words e.g. Large, big, vast etc
dissimilar words e.g. Good, hot, loud
Describe the capacity for sensory register
Very high capacity
Describe the capacity for short term memory
Describe the capacity for long term memory
What is the duration of the sensory register
Very little information that enters into the sensory register passes into the memory state if it is attended to it is passed into the short term memory
What is the duration of short term memory
What is the duration of long term memory?
Potentially a whole life
What did miller (1956) research?
The capacity of short term memory
What did Baddeley (1966) research in to
Coding of short term memory
What did Peterson & Peterson (1956)
Duration of short term memory
What term did miller use to describe the capacity of short term memory
The magical number 7
What specifically did miller look into in STM
Chunking in STM
What did Baddeley find about coding of STM
Words are coded acoustically
What did Baddeley find about coding in LTM
Information is coded semantically in LTM
How did Miller (1956) conduct his research?
He did research similar to that of Jacobs (1887)
How did Baddeley conduct his research
He used a word list such as cat, mat, hat and chat in research on memory
How did Peterson & Peterson prevent rehearsal?
Making Ps count backwards
What did Peterson & Peterson find
STM lasts 18-30seconds
What is the sensory register?
The sensory register is the place where information is held for each of the senses. Most information receives no attention so remains in the sensory register for milliseconds
In the multi store memory model what is the role of the sensory register?
Stimuli reach the sensory register from the 'haptic', 'iconic', 'echoic' and gustatory senses. (Most information is lost immediately through forgetting)
How do things get sent from the sensory register to short term memory in the multi store memory model?
Things that you pay attention to are passed on to the STM
What is the rehearsal loop in the MSM (multi store model)?
The rehearsal loop maintains he information in the STM for long enough to retain it and for LTM to form.
How to things get forgotten from the STM
Retrieval and use of the memory or loss and forgetting
How do things get passed from STM to LTM?
Why does the LTM pass information back to the STM?
The LTM passes information back to the STM if it is worth rehearsing and should be paid attention to
What is the central executive in the working memory model?
The attentional process that monitors incoming data and makes decisions on how to allocate slave system tasks
What is the capacity of the central executive in the working memory model?
What is the coding of the central executive in the working memory model?
All types of coding
What is the phonological loop in the working memory model?
One of the slave systems, deals with auditory informs and preserves the order in which the information arrives
What is the capacity of the phonological loop in the working memory model?
What is the coding of the phonological loop in the working memory model?
What is the visuospatial sketchpad (inner eye) in the working memory model?
The second slave system, stores visual and/or spatial information when required
What is the capacity of the visuospatial sketchpad in the working memory model?
What is the coding of the visuospatial sketchpad in the working memory model?
What is the episodic buffer in the working memory model?
Third slave system, temporary store for information
What is the capacity for the episodic buffer in the working memory model?
What is the coding for the episodic buffer in the working memory model?
Visual, spatial and verbal
Define eyewitness testimony (EWT)
The ability of people to remember the details of events, such as accidents and crimes, which they themselves have observed. Accuracy of EWT can be affected by factors such as misleading information, leading questions and anxiety
Define misleading information
Incorrect information given to the eyewitness usually after the event. It can take many forms e.g. Leading question and post event discussion
Define leading questions
A question which, because of the way it's phrased, suggests a certain answer
Define post even discussion
PED occurs when there is more than one witness to an event. Witnesses may discuss what they have seen with co-witnesses or with other people. This can influence the accuracy of each witnesses recall of the event.
What was the procedure of Elizabeth Loftus and John Palmers (1974) study into leading questions?
Had Ps watch video about a car crash
Gave Ps questions about video "how fast were the cars going when they hit each other?"
The verb hit implies that the car was going fast
They used different verbs in each study (hit, contacted, bumped, collided or smashed)
Why do leading questions affect EWT? (response bias)
The response bias explanation suggests that the wording of the question has no real effect on the Ps memories but influences of how they decide to answer. When a verb like smashed is used it encourages the Ps to choose a higher speed estimate
What is the first stage of the cognitive interview?
-Witness is first asked to recall all they can about event without interruption
-Told to include every detail (even if they seem irrelevant)
Why does anxiety affect EWT?
A low level of anxiety will cause cognitive performance to be at a relatively low level, then as anxiety rises it reaches an optimum level (anxiety in between low and high and cognitive performance at its highest) then as anxiety increases, there is a rapid drop in cognitive performance.
This is shown through the INVERTED-U EXPLANATION
How does anxiety affect EWT?
Victims of stressful incidents, such as being a victim or witness to a crime, will lead to victims having relatively inaccurate memories of the incident.
Johnson and Scott (1976) EWT & anxiety procedure
Ps are separated into 2 groups
Group 1 overhear calm conversation about non working equipment (person talking is holding a pen)
Group 2 overhear panicked conversation about non working equipment (person talking is holding a knife)
Ps then have to recall the person talking from 50 people
Johnson and Scott (1976) EWT & anxiety ecological validity
The study had low ecological validity (due to the fact it is a lab experiment)
Johnson and Scott (1976) EWT & anxiety what did it show
The weapon effect
(The anxiety of seeing a weapon focuses all your attention on the weapon meaning you won't be able to recall much else)
Johnson and Scott (1976) EWT & anxiety main findings
49% recalled when they saw the calm man with the pen
33% recalled when the saw the panicked man with the knife (due to the weapon effect)
Johnson and Scott (1976) EWT & anxiety positive point
It was a very controlled study meaning there was no chance for post event discussion
Johnson and Scott (1976) EWT & anxiety negative point
This study does not protect Ps from harm as those who heard the panicked man with the knife would have undergone stress and anxiety making them very uncomfortable
Yuille and Cutshall (1986) EWT & anxiety procedure
Used a real life shooting
A shop owner shot a thief
13 witnesses took part
Held interviews 4-5 months after shooting & compared results to police interviews
Yuille and Cutshall (1986) EWT & anxiety ecological validity
There is a high ecological validity in this study due to the fact that it was a real event that took place
Yuille and Cutshall (1986) EWT & anxiety main findings
Their accounts were very accurate and there was little change in accuracy after 5 months
Those with higher stress levels were more inaccurate
(88% compared to 75%)
Yuille and Cutshall (1986) EWT & anxiety negative points
There was a lack of control in this experiment (in the 4-5 month period between the shooting and study there could have been post event discussion)
Yuille and Cutshall (1986) EWT & anxiety negative point
Creating anxiety in a study as it does not protect the ps from harm and could cause further psychological damage
Parker et al. (2006) EWT & anxiety procedure
Interviewed people who had been affected by the destruction caused by hurricane Andrew
Defined anxiety in terms of how much damage was done to each participants house
Parker et al. (2006) EWT & anxiety ecological validity
There is a high ecological validity due to the fact that this was a real event
Parker et al. (2006) EWT & anxiety main findings
There was a link found between level of recall & amount of damage/anxiety
Parker et al. (2006) EWT & anxiety positive points
Many studies on the link between recall and anxiety before this one were lab studies with a low ecological validity, but this study was an observational study on a real event, meaning it has a high ecological validity.
Parker et al. (2006) EWT & anxiety negative points
The inverted-u explanation is often thought to be too simplistic, as it only links anxiety to cognitive function when there are other factors affecting it
Valentine and Mesout (2009) EWT and anxiety procedure
Ps had to describe a person they encountered in the Labyrinth (in London dungeon)
Valentine and Mesout (2009) EWT and anxiety ecological validity
High ecological validity due to the fact it is a field experiment
Valentine and Mesout (2009) EWT and anxiety main findings
17% of high anxiety Ps correctly identified the actor
75% of low anxiety Ps correctly identified the actor