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A level Psychology-Paper 1 > Memory > Flashcards

Flashcards in Memory Deck (68):
1

Describe coding for the sensory register

Sensory memory stores each of our five sense
Main ways are ICONIC MEMORY (visual) and ECOHIC MEMORT (auditory)

2

Describe coding for short term memory

Mainly acoustic coding

3

Describe coding for long term memory

Semantically similar words e.g. Large, big, vast etc
OR
dissimilar words e.g. Good, hot, loud

4

Describe the capacity for sensory register

Very high capacity

5

Describe the capacity for short term memory

7+/-2

6

Describe the capacity for long term memory

Potentially infinity

7

What is the duration of the sensory register

Very little information that enters into the sensory register passes into the memory state if it is attended to it is passed into the short term memory

8

What is the duration of short term memory

18-30 seconds

9

What is the duration of long term memory?

Potentially a whole life

10

What did miller (1956) research?

The capacity of short term memory

11

What did Baddeley (1966) research in to

Coding of short term memory

12

What did Peterson & Peterson (1956)

Duration of short term memory

13

What term did miller use to describe the capacity of short term memory

The magical number 7

14

What specifically did miller look into in STM

Chunking in STM

15

What did Baddeley find about coding of STM

Words are coded acoustically

16

What did Baddeley find about coding in LTM

Information is coded semantically in LTM

17

How did Miller (1956) conduct his research?

He did research similar to that of Jacobs (1887)

18

How did Baddeley conduct his research

He used a word list such as cat, mat, hat and chat in research on memory

19

How did Peterson & Peterson prevent rehearsal?

Making Ps count backwards

20

What did Peterson & Peterson find

STM lasts 18-30seconds

21

What is the sensory register?

The sensory register is the place where information is held for each of the senses. Most information receives no attention so remains in the sensory register for milliseconds

22

In the multi store memory model what is the role of the sensory register?

Stimuli reach the sensory register from the 'haptic', 'iconic', 'echoic' and gustatory senses. (Most information is lost immediately through forgetting)

23

How do things get sent from the sensory register to short term memory in the multi store memory model?

Things that you pay attention to are passed on to the STM

24

What is the rehearsal loop in the MSM (multi store model)?

The rehearsal loop maintains he information in the STM for long enough to retain it and for LTM to form.

25

How to things get forgotten from the STM

Retrieval and use of the memory or loss and forgetting

26

How do things get passed from STM to LTM?

Retrieval

27

Why does the LTM pass information back to the STM?

The LTM passes information back to the STM if it is worth rehearsing and should be paid attention to

28

What is the central executive in the working memory model?

The attentional process that monitors incoming data and makes decisions on how to allocate slave system tasks

29

What is the capacity of the central executive in the working memory model?

very limited

30

What is the coding of the central executive in the working memory model?

All types of coding

31

What is the phonological loop in the working memory model?

One of the slave systems, deals with auditory informs and preserves the order in which the information arrives

32

What is the capacity of the phonological loop in the working memory model?

2 seconds

33

What is the coding of the phonological loop in the working memory model?

Auditory

34

What is the visuospatial sketchpad (inner eye) in the working memory model?

The second slave system, stores visual and/or spatial information when required

35

What is the capacity of the visuospatial sketchpad in the working memory model?

3-4 objects

36

What is the coding of the visuospatial sketchpad in the working memory model?

Visual

37

What is the episodic buffer in the working memory model?

Third slave system, temporary store for information

38

What is the capacity for the episodic buffer in the working memory model?

3-4 chunks

39

What is the coding for the episodic buffer in the working memory model?

Visual, spatial and verbal

40

Define eyewitness testimony (EWT)

The ability of people to remember the details of events, such as accidents and crimes, which they themselves have observed. Accuracy of EWT can be affected by factors such as misleading information, leading questions and anxiety

41

Define misleading information

Incorrect information given to the eyewitness usually after the event. It can take many forms e.g. Leading question and post event discussion

42

Define leading questions

A question which, because of the way it's phrased, suggests a certain answer

43

Define post even discussion

PED occurs when there is more than one witness to an event. Witnesses may discuss what they have seen with co-witnesses or with other people. This can influence the accuracy of each witnesses recall of the event.

44

What was the procedure of Elizabeth Loftus and John Palmers (1974) study into leading questions?

Had Ps watch video about a car crash
Gave Ps questions about video "how fast were the cars going when they hit each other?"
The verb hit implies that the car was going fast
They used different verbs in each study (hit, contacted, bumped, collided or smashed)

45

Why do leading questions affect EWT? (response bias)

The response bias explanation suggests that the wording of the question has no real effect on the Ps memories but influences of how they decide to answer. When a verb like smashed is used it encourages the Ps to choose a higher speed estimate

46

What is the first stage of the cognitive interview?

-Witness is first asked to recall all they can about event without interruption
-Told to include every detail (even if they seem irrelevant)
-

47

Why does anxiety affect EWT?

A low level of anxiety will cause cognitive performance to be at a relatively low level, then as anxiety rises it reaches an optimum level (anxiety in between low and high and cognitive performance at its highest) then as anxiety increases, there is a rapid drop in cognitive performance.
This is shown through the INVERTED-U EXPLANATION

48

How does anxiety affect EWT?

Victims of stressful incidents, such as being a victim or witness to a crime, will lead to victims having relatively inaccurate memories of the incident.

49

Johnson and Scott (1976) EWT & anxiety procedure

Ps are separated into 2 groups
Group 1 overhear calm conversation about non working equipment (person talking is holding a pen)
Group 2 overhear panicked conversation about non working equipment (person talking is holding a knife)
Ps then have to recall the person talking from 50 people

50

Johnson and Scott (1976) EWT & anxiety ecological validity

The study had low ecological validity (due to the fact it is a lab experiment)

51

Johnson and Scott (1976) EWT & anxiety what did it show

The weapon effect
(The anxiety of seeing a weapon focuses all your attention on the weapon meaning you won't be able to recall much else)

52

Johnson and Scott (1976) EWT & anxiety main findings

49% recalled when they saw the calm man with the pen
33% recalled when the saw the panicked man with the knife (due to the weapon effect)

53

Johnson and Scott (1976) EWT & anxiety positive point

It was a very controlled study meaning there was no chance for post event discussion

54

Johnson and Scott (1976) EWT & anxiety negative point

This study does not protect Ps from harm as those who heard the panicked man with the knife would have undergone stress and anxiety making them very uncomfortable

55

Yuille and Cutshall (1986) EWT & anxiety procedure

Used a real life shooting
A shop owner shot a thief
13 witnesses took part
Held interviews 4-5 months after shooting & compared results to police interviews

56

Yuille and Cutshall (1986) EWT & anxiety ecological validity

There is a high ecological validity in this study due to the fact that it was a real event that took place

57

Yuille and Cutshall (1986) EWT & anxiety main findings

Their accounts were very accurate and there was little change in accuracy after 5 months
Those with higher stress levels were more inaccurate
(88% compared to 75%)

58

Yuille and Cutshall (1986) EWT & anxiety negative points

There was a lack of control in this experiment (in the 4-5 month period between the shooting and study there could have been post event discussion)

59

Yuille and Cutshall (1986) EWT & anxiety negative point

Creating anxiety in a study as it does not protect the ps from harm and could cause further psychological damage

60

Parker et al. (2006) EWT & anxiety procedure

Interviewed people who had been affected by the destruction caused by hurricane Andrew
USA 1992
Defined anxiety in terms of how much damage was done to each participants house

61

Parker et al. (2006) EWT & anxiety ecological validity

There is a high ecological validity due to the fact that this was a real event

62

Parker et al. (2006) EWT & anxiety main findings

There was a link found between level of recall & amount of damage/anxiety

63

Parker et al. (2006) EWT & anxiety positive points

Many studies on the link between recall and anxiety before this one were lab studies with a low ecological validity, but this study was an observational study on a real event, meaning it has a high ecological validity.

64

Parker et al. (2006) EWT & anxiety negative points

The inverted-u explanation is often thought to be too simplistic, as it only links anxiety to cognitive function when there are other factors affecting it

65

Valentine and Mesout (2009) EWT and anxiety procedure

Ps had to describe a person they encountered in the Labyrinth (in London dungeon)

66

Valentine and Mesout (2009) EWT and anxiety ecological validity

High ecological validity due to the fact it is a field experiment

67

Valentine and Mesout (2009) EWT and anxiety main findings

17% of high anxiety Ps correctly identified the actor
75% of low anxiety Ps correctly identified the actor

68

Valentine and Mesout (2009) EWT and anxiety negative points

Creating anxiety in Ps is risky as this can cause psychological harm
(Protection from harm)