Flashcards in Social Influence Deck (87):
Who conducted the line experiment into conformity?
Why was deception necessary in Asch's experiment?
The fact that Asch was deceiving people was outweighed by the need for results and the benefit of the study, as without deception Asch's study could have not worked
Define the term individualistic culture
Countries (like the UK) where people think about how actions will affect them over other people
What are demand characteristics?
Behaviour people show when they're in an experiment (when they're in a different environment e.g. Lab experiment)
Define the term collectivist culture
Countries (like china) where people think about how their actions will affect their family over themselves
What are the TYPES of conformity?
Compliance, Identification, Internalisation
What is identification?
When you conform publicly as well as privately because you have identified with the group and feel a sense of membership. Your change of belief or behaviour is often temporary. A moderate type of conformity where you act the same as the group because you value the group and want to be part of it, but don't necessarily agree with everything the group says
What are the EXPLANATIONS for conformity?
Normative Social influence (to fit in, not stand out etc) and informative social influence (think other people have more information
If the research is affected by demand characteristics how might this affect the findings?
It will mean the results may not be valid outside of a lab environment
What is the problem posed by the diversity group in Asch's experiment?
They didn't test a range of people so the results cannot be valid
What is Internalisation?
Internalisation is where the behaviour or belief of the majority becomes a part of your belief system. It is the most permanent type of conformity as the conformity often lasts even f the majority is not longer present. You change both your public and your private views
What is compliance?
Changing your behaviour to fit in with the group, you may not necessarily agree with the behaviour/belief but you go along with it publicly. Not a permanent form of social influence
What was the sex of the participants in Asch's research?
What is the main ethical issue with Asch's experiment?
People were deceived because they thought the confederates were real people. This called them intense stress and discomfort
Give a brief explanation of Asch's experiment
Asch used a lab experiment, using the line judgement task to study conformity. Asch had 7 plants and 1 participant in the room. The plants agreed in advance what line they would choose for each task, always making sure to choose the wrong line, and sitting in an order that meant the participant had to answer last. Each person in the room had to state which line was the same as the target line. The answer was always made very clear.
On average how many participants went along with the plants and confined in every trial of Asch's experiment
37% of participants
How many participants conformed on at least one trial of Asch's experiment
75% of participants
Why the study is carried out
How the study is carried out (research methods)
The findings of the study
How do the results fit in with the aim or contrast with the aim
No clear answer
Clear correct answer
What is an ethical issue?
A difficulty, tension or problem that arises during the course of the research. (Possibly having a negative effect on the participants)
What is a lack of informed consent?
When the experimenter did not correctly tell the participant the aim of the study and what they'd be asked to do and/or the experimenter not asking the participants if they are happy to take part
What is deception?
Leading the participant to believe something which is not true
What is the lack of right to withdraw?
Not allowing the participants to withdraw themselves from the study at any point and/or not allowing them to withdraw their data at the end of the study
What is lack of anonymity?
A lack of anonymity is where the participants data is identifiable by name
Not giving advice
Researchers are not mean to give participants advice event if they ask for it, if P's have questions they should be referred to a professional who can help them
Use of debriefing
Debriefing must be an active procedure, it must restore Ps to the state/condition they were in prior to the study and all deceptions must be cleared up.
Debriefing is not possible in observational studies
Is this a directional or non-directional hypothesis?
"Men who have beards are perceived as older than clean-shaven men"
Is this a directional or non-directional hypothesis?
"Anxiety affects the level of adrenaline in the blood"
Is this a directional or non-directional hypothesis?
"Wearing make up has an effect to i how attractive a person is rated to be"
Define Extraneous Variables
Variables other than the IV that could possibly influence the measurement of the DV
Define Confounding Variables
Variables that have effected the results of a study that were not previously realised
Define demand characteristics
When participants react to an experiment by looking for a clue to try and work out what is going on. The participants use these clues to tell them how to act.
The researches precedence in the study can have an influence on the results gathered because they could unconsciously change the participants' behaviour. (Eg body language, tone of voice etc)
This can be reduced by a double blind trial
What is a lab experiment
An experiment which takes place in a controlled setting such as a lab
What is an advantage of a lab experiment
-Variables are highly controlled so we can be more certain that any change in the DV is due to the IV.
-Very easy to replicate
-Easier to get consent
What is a disadvantage of a lab experiment
The environment is artificial so the P's may act differently to how they normally would
In the Milgram study what was the aim?
To see if people would obey and put someone's life at risk
In the Milgram study what is the 'Germans are different' hypotheses
Milgram believed that the Germans were a more obedient race
Identify a prod used by the experimenter in the Milgram study
"Please continue"/"Please go on"
"The experiment requires that you continue"
"It is absolutely essential that you continue"
"You have no choice, you must go on"
In the Milgram study how were the participants recruited
Through an advertisement in a newspaper (volunteers)
In the Milgram study how many learners were there?
In the Milgram study participants were paid for taking part in the experiment. What effect might this have had on obedience?
The participants may be more inclined to obey because it will be beneficial to them
In the Milgram study what is the percentage of participants that gave shocks up to the maximum of 450 volts?
In the Milgram study how did Milgram try to make the study more realistic?
He made it seem like there was an equal chance of being the teacher or the learner
Where did the Milgram study take place?
In the Milgram study what were the signs that participants were distressed?
They sweated, laughed nervously, and 3 had seizures. Some also cried and begged.
In the Milgram study what was the role of the teacher (Participant)?
To shock the learner when they got a question wrong
In the Milgram study what was the role of the examiner?
The examiner encouraged the participants to continue. He remained calm throughout the experiment.
In the Milgram study what was the role of the learner (Confederate)?
Give a prerecorded response to each shock
In the Milgram study why was there a wall between the teacher (participant) and the learner (confederate)?
The wall stopped the participants from seeing the consequences of their actions and only allowed them to hear it
In the Milgram study when the location was changed to a run down office how many people still conformed?
In the Milgram study when the teacher and learner were in the same room how many people still conformed?
In the Milgram study when the teacher forced the learners hand onto the electric shock plate how many people still conformed?
In the Milgram study when the experimenter gave instructions through the phone how many people still conformed?
In the Milgram study when the experimenter was played by a member of the public how many people still conformed?
Explain agency theory
When we act as the agent of someone in authority we find it easy to deny personal responsibility for our actions. (Just doing our job or following orders)
What is autonomous state?
Individuals direct their own behaviour and take responsibility for the consequences
What is agentic state?
Individuals allow someone else to direct their behaviour-they pass responsibility to them
What is legitimate authority?
The amount of social power held by the person who gives the instruction. From early childhood we are taught that we should obey those who have authority over us
Why do we obey legitimate authority?
TRUST of the person giving us instruction or fear of PUNISHMENT
Are people with an authoritarian personality more likely to be obedient?
Yes, in milgrams study ps with an authoritarian personality were more likely to do as the experimenter says (20/20)
What is the name of the questionnaire that measures authoritarian personality?
Who came up with the California F-scale?
What is the dispositional explanation for obedience?
An explanations of behaviour that highlights the importance of personality.
Name some characteristics of authoritarian personality
-extreme respect for authority
-sees the world in 'black and white'
-think children should learn to respect authority
-looks down on people they think are lower than them
What may happen in a persons childhood to make them have an authoritarian personality?
-conditional love from parents (only love them when they do well in school)
-admiring and respecting parents
Who did Adorno do his research on
Over 2000 middle-class white Americans
What was Adorno researching in his study?
People unconscious attitudes towards other groups.
What did Adorno believe authoritarian personality was a result of?
(Strictly discipline, expectation of absolute loyalty, impossibly high standards, severe criticism etc)
What did Adorno conclude
People with an authoritarian personality had a dependency on people of authority
What is locus of control?
A persons perception of personal control of their own behaviour
What is meant by a strong INTERNAL locus of control?
People with a strong INTERNAL locus of control believe what happens to them is a result of their own ability and effort
What is meant by high EXTERNAL locus of control?
People with a high EXTERNAL locus of control believe what happens to them is majorly controlled by external factors such as the influence of others or luck
What does Specialist IT (1983) believe about LOC?
He believe there is a correlations between LOC and normative social influence
What is minority influence?
A form of social influence in which a minority of people persuade others to adopt their beliefs, attitudes or behaviours.
What three processes must be involved in minority influence?
Minority views must be consistent
Minority must be seen to be committed to their views
Minority must be flexible in their views
What is consistency?
The minority keep the same beliefs over time and across situations
Over time consistency in the minority's views increase interest from others
Consistency makes the others rethink own views
What is commitment?
Sometimes minorities engage in extreme activities (draws attention to cause)
It is important that these activities are at some risk to the minority (this demonstrates commitment)
This increases the amount of interest from the majority
What is flexibility?
Consistency alone can seem dogmatic-this is off putting
Minority must adapt their point of view and listening to counter arguments
Nemeth (1986) said without flexibility majority won't change
If the minority are consistent, commuted and flexible what happens?
Majority begin thinking about the topic
Over time people switch from majority to minority
The more this happens the faster it gets this is know as the SNOWBALL EFFECT
What happens after social change?
Social crypto amnesia- people know social change has occurred but can't remember how it happened
What is a lack of confidentiality?
A lack of confidentiality is when the data from the study is not stored properly so people who do not need to see or access the results can