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Psychology 101 and 102 > Memory > Flashcards

Flashcards in Memory Deck (89):
1

OBSERVER MEMORY

Remembering a memory but seeing ourselves as a outside observer

2

FIELD MEMORY

Seeing a memory through our vision field.

3

MEMORY ILLUSION

a false but subjectively compelling memory

4

HOW DO THE THREE SYSTEMS OF MEMORY DIFFER?

In terms of span and duration.

5

WHAT IS THE ROLE OF SENSORY MEMORY

- briefly maintains your perceptions in a buffer area before passing them to short-term memory.
- Each sense has its own form of sensory memory.

6

ICONIC MEMORY

sensory memory applied to vision.

7

ANOTHER NAME FOR PHOTOGRAPHIC MEMORY

Eidetic imagery - reflects a unusually long persistence of the iconic image. (although even this memory appears to be reconstructive)

8

What is Echoic Memory

Memory of what has been heard. Lasts about 5-10 seconds. Allows you to take notes of most recent sentence.

9

What is short-term memory also referred to as?

Working Memory

10

What is Working Memory

Memory store for the information we are currently thinking about, attending to, or processing actively.

11

How short is Working Memory?

Experiment by L & M Peterson – after 10-15 seconds, most participants did no better than chance

12

What leads to short term memory loss

1. Decay
2. Interference

13

Describe decay. (as a form of short term memory loss)

Memories fade away.

14

Describe interference (as a form of short term memory loss)

our memories get in the way of each other. (i.e., like radio signals – harder to detect if jammed by other signals).

15

What evidence is there for Decay?

Evidence – physical basis – research suggesting the birth of new neurons in the hippocampus leads to the decay of memories in that region.

16

What evidence is there for interference

Evidence – manipulated how rapidly they presented numerals, and where in the list the target appeared (early or late). Found interference was the main culprit – due to where the target digit appeared.

17

What is retroactive Inhibition

Occurs when learning something new hampers earlier learning. E.g., learned one language – then later learned a somewhat similar language.

18

What is proactive inhibition or interference

Earlier learning gets in the way of new learning. E.g., knowing how to play tennis might get in the way of learning to play squash – smaller racquet.

19

What is the capacity of short-term memory

Digit Span – in most adults is between 5 and 9 digits. (average of 7). Magic number 7 +- 2.

20

What is chunking, and what does it increase?

Chunking – organising material into meaningful groups.
Increases short-term memory

21

What are two ways that short-term memory can be increased?

1. Chunking
2. Rehearsal

22

What is maintainance rehearsal?

Repeating the stimuli in their original form.

23

What is elaborative rehearsal

Elaborate on the stimuli by linking them in some meaningful way or visualising or trying to understand their interrelationship.

24

What are some methods of elaborative rehearsal

1. linking words - dog-shoe.
2. Imagine the two stimulii interacting in some fashion.
3. Learning - better to link information with things that you already kow rather than just repeating it.

25

Which of the following has the most depth of processing?

1. Visual processing
2. Phonological processing
3. Semantic processing.

26

What does long-term memory include?

Long-term memory includes facts, experiences, and skills we have acquired over our life span.

27

What are the types of mistakes we often commit in long-term memory?

Tend to be semantic – based on the meaning of the information we received.

28

What are the types of mistakes we often commit in short-term memory.

Short-term memory errors tend to be acoustic – basedo n the sound of the information we received.

29

What are the three reasons we forget things that were in long-term memory?

1. Primacy Effect
2. Recency Effect
3. Von Restorff Effect

30

Primacy Effect

Tendency to remember stimuli early in the list. [activates hippocampus – transfer info from short-term memory to long-term]

31

Recency Effect

Tendency to remember stimuli later in the list. [activates prefrontal cortext – keeping information ‘alive’ in short term memory.

32

Von Restorff Effect

Tendency to remember stimuli that are distinctive or that stick out like sore thumbs from other stimuli.

33

What are the two types of explicit memory?

.1. Semantic Memory (knowledge and facts about world)
2. Episodic Memory (recollection of events in our lives).

34

What is semantic memory?

A type of explicit memory.
Our knowledge of facts about the world. [tends to activate left pre-frontal cortex]

35

What is episodic memory?

A type of explicit memory. Recollection of events in our lives. [tends to active right pre-frontal cortex]

36

What are the three processes of Memory?

1. Encoding
2. Storage
3. Retrieval

37

What is encoding

- Getting information into our memory banks.
- Many memory failures are failures of encoding – i.e., you never encoded their name in the first place.
- Next-in-line effect – so busy worrying about what you are going to say you don’t remember what the person before you said.

38

What are MNEMONICS?

– learning aids, strategy or device that enhances recall e.g., every good boy deserves fruit.
These rely on internal mental strategies – strategies we used during encoding that help us later retrieve useful information.

39

What is the pegword method?

o Rhyming – key component.
o One is a bun – imagine a bun with a chunk out of it.
o Two is a shoe – imagine a shoe with a elaboration on it.
o Three is a tree – image a tree with a hippo camping under it.
o Repeated use of pegword method – supposed to improve vocabulary.

40

What are sosme examples of mnemonics?

pegword method
acrynoms
method of loco
keyword method

41

What is the method of loci?

o Relies on imagery of places – ie. Locations.
o Stops along the route to your location. Then imagine things along the route. E.g., chunking – image chunks of rock or glass on the floor of the lift and so on.

42

What is the keyword method?

Think of a English work (the keyword) that reminds you of the word you are trying to remember. E.g., Spanish word casa = house. English word case – combine both in your mind.

43

How does STORAGE take place in relation to long-term memory?

- Process of keeping information in memory.
- Where we file the memory depends on our interpretation and expectations regarding the book’s content.

44

What is a schema?

- Organised knowledge structure or mental model that we have stored in memory.
- Characterised by a set order of events – called a script.
- E.g., restaurant – standard sequence of ordering etc.
- Equip us with frames of reference for interpreting new situations.

45

What are some memory mistakes that are caused by relying on schemas?

- Sometimes oversimplify – can create memory illusions.
- Can cause us to over-generalise – paint all people in one category with the same brush.

46

What is the third stage of memory?

Retrieval

47

Describe the process of retrieval of memories (from long term memory)

- Memories are RECONSTRUCTIVE - what we retrieve from our memory often does not match what we put into it. Often transformed to fit our belief and expectations.
- Category names serve as retrieval cues.

48

What are the three ways of measuring memory?

1. Recall
2. Recognition
3. Relearning

49

Which is more difficult. Recall and recognition?

Recall is more difficult. Generating previously remembered information on our own.
Requires two steps – generating answer, determining if it is correct.

50

What is the law of distributed vs massed practice

We tend to remember things in the long run when we spread learning over long intervals than when we pack it into short intervals.

51

Describe Coding Specificty (Endel Tulving)

- We are more likely to remember something when the conditions present at the time we encoded are present at the time of retrieval.
- Eg. Context-dependent learning and state-dependent learning.

52

What is State Dependent Learning?

- Refers to the internal state of the organism.
- Same psychological or physiological state as it was during decoding.
o Our current psychological state can distort memories from our past.

53

What is context dependent learning

- Superior retrieval when the external context of the original memory matches the retrieval context.

54

Which memories are we less likely to forget?

Memories that are distinctive, interesting, and emotionally meaningful.

55

What is consolidation theory?

It is a distinct process that serves to maintain, strengthen and modify memories that are already stored in the long-term memory. Once memories undergo the process of consolidation and become part of long-term memory, they are thought of as stable.

56

When biology of memory is investigated using lab rates, what was found?

1. The more brain he removed, the worse the rat performed in the maze.
2. No matter where he removed the brain tissue, the rats retained at least some memory of the maze.
3. Even removing up to half of the rat’s cortext did not erase the memory.

57

What is a engram? Is this supported?

Engram is a physical trace of each memory in the brain. Hebb proposed that engrams were located in assemblies of neurons in the brain.
Disproven by lab rat experiments (see other card)

58

What is long-term potentiations (LTP)

Gradual strengthening of the connections among neurons from repetitive stimulation over time.

59

Which part of the memory plays a key role in forming lasting memories?

Hippocampus

60

Describe what happens in the brain during long-term potentiation (LTP)

- Neurons that fire together, wire together.
- Hippocampus plays a key role in forming lasting memories.
- Ability to store memories depends on strengthening the connections among neurons arranged in sprawling networks that extend to the far and deep recesses of the brain.
- LTP occurs at synapses where the sending neuron releases neurotransmitter glutamate.
- LTP enhances the release of glutamate into the synaptic cleft, resulting in enhanced learning.
- Glutamate reacts with NMDA and AMPA receptors.

61

Where is memory stored?

- Hippocampus plays a critical role in long-term memory.
- But learning information is not stored permanently in the hippocampus itself.
- Pre-frontal cortex – part of an extended network that enables us to retrieve our long-term memories.
- However, these memories are distributed throughout many areas of the cortex.

62

What is retrograde amnesia?

Some memories of the past.
e.g Harry Molaison - didn’t remember anything from on hour/day to another. BUT, did demonstrate implicit memory for the task of tracing geometrical shapes from a mirror (procedural).

63

What is anterograde amnesia?

Lose the capacity to form new memories.

64

What is generalised Amnesia?

Exceedingly rare.

65

When the amygdala is damaged, how does this effect memory?

When the amygdala is damaged (hippocampus working) people remember the fear-producing experience, but not the fear.

66

What happens when the hippocampus is damaged?

A person will remember the fear, but not the facts surrounding the fear producing memory.

67

What happens to the brain in Alzheimer's patients?

There are senile plaques and neurofibillary tangles. These contribute to loss of synapses and death of cells in the hippocampus and cerbral cortex.

68

What causes senility/dementia?

Alzheimers and multiple strokes.

69

What neurons die in alzheimer's patients?

The acetylcholine neurons.

70

What do drugs for alzheimer's disease do?

Boost the amount of acetylcholine in the brain - inhibiting it's breakdown.

71

What protects someone against alzheimer's disease?

Diet and intellect

72

What is habituation?

Decrease in attention to familiar stimuli. Newborns display this.

73

Is habituation explicit or implicit emory?

implicit - recalling information we do not remember deliberately.

74

What are the two types of long-term memory

1. Explicit (require conscious effort and awareness)
2. Implicit (recalling information we do not deliberately remember)

75

Name 5 examples of impicit memory

1. Procedural memory (motor skills - e.g., typing)
2. Priming (identify stimulus more easily when we have previously encountered similar stimulus).
3. Habituation.
4. Classical Conditioning
5. Operant conditioning.

76

What is priming?

Ability to identify a stimulus more easily and more quickly when we have previously encountered similar stimuli.
e.g., stem completion task – fill in the missing letters of a word. If you saw the word queen, you are more likely to complete the stem work King . E.g., OJ Simpson case – everyong seeing OJ on number-plates.

77

What is procedural Memory?

Memory for fine motor skills and habits. “know how” memory.e.g. typing.

78

What age do children generally reach the typical memory span of 7 +- 2?

At the age of 12.

79

Why does memory increase with age?

- better rehearsal strategies
- conceptual understanding increases
- ability to chunk related items and store memories in meaningful ways.
- Over time children develop enhanced meta-memory skills – knowledge about their memory ability and limitations.

80

What is meta-memory

Knowledge about their memory ability and limitations.

81

What is infantile amnesia

Forgetting the first few years of life.

82

What causes infantile amnesia?

- Hippocampus – only partially developed in infancy.
- Infants possess little or no concept of self (ie. Don’t recognise themselves in mirrors). Therefore not able to encode or store memories in a meaningful fashion.

83

Why are flashbulb memories often incorrect?

- Story of recollections changed dramatically over time.
- Phantom flashbulb memory.
e.g., where we were when we heard of Sept 11.

84

What is source monitoring

Our efforts to identify the origins (sources) of our memories. Trying to figure out whether a memory really reflects something that happened or whether we merely imagined it.

85

Memories are more likely to reflect actual events if...

They are more vivid and detailed.

86

What is cryptomnesia?

a "hidden memory" - mistakenly believing you have invented something yourself. e.g., plagerism.

87

What is the misinformation effect.

Providing people with misleading information after an event which leads to fictitious memories.

88

What makes it easier to implant a memory?

1. It is plausible
2. Event from a distant past which we have a hazy memory of.

89

Which line-up method is more accurate? Simulateous or sequential?

Sequential. Means they can't compare and pick the person most like the one they saw.