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Flashcards in Memory Deck (69):

Coding of sensory register

Iconic or echoic


Capacity of sensory register

Very large / unspecified


Duration of SR

1/4-1/2 second


STM coding

Sound - Baddeley 1966


STM capacity

7 +/- 2 chunks of info - Miller 1956


STM duration

Without, rehearsal, less than 18 secs. Peterson x2 1959


LTM coding

Semantic meaninf
Baddeley 1966


LTM capacity

Potentially unlimited
E.g. Stephen Wiltshire


LTM duration

Up to a lifetime
Bahrick et al 1975


Strengths of Multi store model by Atkinson and shiffrin

Baddeley 1996 : immediate recall- STM worse with acoustically similar words, and after 20 mins LTM worse with semantically similar words. Shows how they’re separate stores and they code differently.
HM case study of amnesia - brain damage caused by operation to remove hippocampus from both sides of brain. Personality and intellect remained same, but couldn’t form new LTMs. Shows LTM and STM are differeng stores.


Multiple store model weakness reductionist

KF’s study - STM for digits were poor when read out to him, but better when he read to himself - shows visual and auditory info requires separate stores but MSM suggests there is only 1. So it’s reductionist and over simplified.


MSM weakness elaborative processing to creat LTM is key

Craig and Lockhart suggested enduring memories are created by processing that you do, rather than maintenance rehearsal. Processed more deeply- doing more complicated things with items=more memorable.


MSM weakness LTM actually has 3 types

Tulvings research shows 3 types of LTM. Maintenance rehearsal only explains LTM semantic memory like knowledge of the world but not episodic memories. So doesn’t support how MSM suggests both STM and LTM are single unitary stores.


Episodic memory

Personal memories
Time stamped
Requires conscious effort to recall


Semantic memory

Shared memories, everyone knows the event, facts and knowledge
Less time stamped
Can be concrete or abstract


Procedural memory

Concerned with skills
Acquired through Repeated practise
Doesn’t require conscious effort to recall


Strength case study of LTM types

Clive wearing - suffered servers virus leading to memory loss. Still remembered how to play piano - procedural memory intact. Couldn’t recall past events and little knowledge of world - episodic and semantic damaged.


LTM types X case studies not reliable

In clinical case studies there’s lack of control of different variables e.g, precise location of brain damage or personality. So other factors might be affecting their memory damage. So difficult to generalise.


LTM types strength brain scans evidence

Different areas of brain are active when different type of LTM is beinf used - episodic:hippocampus
Semantic : temporal lobe
Procedural : cerebellum


Real life applications to improve people’s lives LTM types

Belleville et al. Episodic memories can be improved in elderly with mild cognitive impairments by training which improves memory performance.


Working memory model

Visuo-spatial sketchpad : for spatial tasks - inner scribe and visual cache
Central executive : coordinates sub systems, focuses and switches attention
Phonological loop : phonological store, inner ear- auditory memory for few secs
and articulatory loop- sub vocal speech , inner voice
Later added in 2000: episodic buffer;temporary store for info and links STM to LTM


Word length effect research for WMM

Baddeley et al 1975
Asked to write down as many words they can remember from short word list - harm, and long word list - association. Remembered more shorter words. Phonological loop holds amount of info u can say in 1.5-2 secs so makes it harder to remember longer words, inhibiting rehearsal. Limited capacity in phon. Store.


Limitation of WMM central executive vague

CE lacks clarity and cognitive psyche suggest its unsatisfactory cuz it should be more clearly specified . Not just ‘attention’. WMM not fully explained


CE may have more than one component WMM X

Eslinger and Damasio: Studied EVR-cerebral rumour removed - reasoning tests good, decision making bad. CE was intact but not wholly.


Existence of CE from brains scans

Braver et al. Activity in prefrontal cortex increased as tasks became harder. = Demands On CE increase, has to work harder to fulfil its function. So supports WMM


Explanations of forgetting intereference theory

Interference theory: forgetting occurs cuz memories interfere with and disrupt one another. This conflict makes it harder to locate them. More likely to happen with similar info.


Proactive itnereferenfed

Earlier disrupts new.


Retroactive intwrederer

New intereferes with old.


Research for interference theory

McGeoch and McDonald- list 1 words, list 2 unrelated digits or related synonyms. Ps who learnt digits after had les impairment when recalling list 1. Similar info makes interefenfed happen


Interference theory research lacks ecological val.

Take place in labs, word lists which u don’t do everyday and artificial env. So can’t gwnreelaise


I THEORY only affects accessibility so it’s not actually forgetting

Ceraso found if memory was tested after 24 hrs, recognition (accessibility) showed considerable spontaneous recovery, where as recall (availability) stayed the same.


Interference not universal cuz its individual differences

Kane and Eagle found individuals with greater WM span was less sucsceptible to proactive interference. Shows individual difference s can make people less affected by intereference. So not generalisable


Real world application in advertising I THWORY

danaher et al - recall and recog of ad’s message impaired when ps exposed to 2 adverts within a week. Gives advertiser knowledge to come up with new strategies- do more ads


Explanations of forgetting retrieval failure

Forgetting due to lack of accessibility
If there are no retrieval cues memories can’t be recalled.
Tip of the tongue phenomenon


Encoding specificity principle

Cues will help recall info if it’s present at learning and retrieval
If cues are not present for retrieval forgetting will happen


Meaningful cues

Linked to material-to be remembered in a meaningful way li,e mnemonics


Contextual cues

Something in env. During learning
Objects in room, smell


State cues

The way we felt durin learning
Calm during revision


Context dependent forgetting research

Golden and Baddeley 1975 : deep sea divers learnt list of words in either land or water and recalled in either land or water
Recalled in different contests performed more than 30% worse than those who recalled In same context.


State dependent forgetting

Goodwin et al 1969- makes asked remember list of words either drunk or sober. 24 hrs later recalle drunk or sober. Those who learned and recalled on the same state performed better despite being drunk


RFT. empirical evidence uses extreme conditions.

Underwater, real life we rarely have to recall in extreme conditions so it’s difficult to generalise and lacks ecological validity


Policie C.I RFT

Introducing state and contextual cues remind eye witness about crimes has helped delveip CI methods. Using contextual reinstatement.


RFT. not effective in real situations

Word lists in research but in real life we learn about complex associations that are less easily triggered by cues. Smith and be,a also found context effects largely eliminated when learning meaningful material so it’s reductionist


RFT explainers interference theory :)

Tulving and Psotka. Interference actually due to absence of cues. In cued recall despite how many lists learnt, ps remembered about 70% or words. This shows info is always there and available but can’t be retrieved without cues.


Eye witness testimony - misleading info 2 things

Leading questions and repeat interviewing


Leading questions 2 explanations

Wording of question affects EWT. Substitution explanation says wording changes ps memory of event. Response bias exp. says wording doesn’t have effect on memory, just influence persons decision to answer


Post event discussion 2 ways

Repeat interviewing- every time an EW is interviewed, Bigger chance that comments from interviewed can be incorporated into recollections of events
Conformity effect - happens when EW reach consensus about what happened


Research into misleading info affecting memory

After watching a film of car crash, Asked question about the speed of the car, changing the verb - smashed or hit. 1 week later were asked if there was broken glass in the crash (there wasn’t). Significantly more people said glass broke when verb was smashed. SHOWS MEMORY CHANGE cuz most people remembered correctly even. 1 week after.


Lotus and Palmer lacks ecological validity

Ps watched videos of crash, some of which were staged so it is artificial. This means they didn’t feel shock anxiety or stress which u would in real life. So findings can’t be generalised .


Misleading info subject to individual differences and have bigger impact on children

Children and others who lack mental capacity might think if they agree to the question they will please the interviewer and other people around them. This is not accurate


Research into misleading info has had massive impact on justice system

Criminal justice system relies heavily on EWT. Psych research helped warn the system of problems with EWT e.g. misleading qs.
Recent DNA exoneration cases has showed mistaken EW identification is largest factor to conviction of innocent peps.


Ethical implications stating EW’S are unreliable

Education juries on inaccuracies of EWT may lead to distrust towards victims of crimes who r actually truth. So may not only have neg. impact on victims but also lead to guilty people going free. So info must be used within caution cuz it’s socially sensitive.


Case study evidence on impact of misleading info JESS DESKOVIC

Detectives interrogated him and because he failed the polygraph exam, one detective accused him of failing the test and said certain he was the criminal of the rape of his classmate. This is when Jess said he realised he was responsible 3 weeks ago. This is how leading Qs and repeat interviewing can change memories or have response bias. He was released 16 years after thanks to dna twsting


Anxiety has negative effect on EWT

weapon focus effect - weapon in criminals hand distracts attention from the features cuz of anxiety created so decreases accuracy.


Anxiety has positive effect on EWT

fight or flight - evolutionary response to threat to prepare body for defending or atacking or run away. Release of adrenaline makes pupils dilate to get more light in and lay more attention. So it increases our alertness. So improves memories.


Research for WFA Johnson and Scott

told ps they were going to take part in lab study while in waiting room they hear argument in next room.
1. Low anxiety - man walked out with greasy hands and pen
2. High anxiety - man rushes out with bloody hands and knife
Asked to pick out man from 50 photos. Low anxiety was 49% accuracy, high was 33%.


Fight or flight resrear h

Yuille and cutshall. Real life gun shooting in gun shop. 13 participated out of 21 witnesses. Rated how stressed they were at the time. Most stressed = 88% accuracy, less stressed=75% accuracy


Evaluation of anxiety HEYEPV

High ecological validity J+S
Ethical issues
Yuille and cutshall case study
Emotional sensitivity
Violent nature


Emotional sensory Anxiety :(

Bothwell et al. Ps assessed for neuroticism - emotionally sensitive - and either labelled neurotic or stable. Stable ps showed rising levels of accuracy as stress increased but opposite for neurotic ps.


EWT actually affected by violent nature of crime

Halford and Milne found victims of violent crimes were more accurate in recall of crime scene than non violent crimes. Shows there is no simple rule about effect of anisety on accuracy of EWT.


Cognitive interview

Retrieve more accurate memories
Report everything
Reinstate context
Reverse order
Change perspective


Report everything

Every single detail even if it appears irrelevant or if it’s only a partial memory. Improves accuracy cuz there’s no leading Qs so memory not interfered with, avoids substitution exp. doesn’t make them anxious. Can use words used by witness later so no false memories implanted


Reinstate context

Related to context and state dependent forgetting.
Witness imagine the env and emotions.
These cues can overcome context and state forgetting and trigger memories, in vivo.


Reverse the order

Events should be recalled in different chronological order to original sequence. Like backwards.
This prevents schemas from interrupting memories, focuses on other things not just tell a story


Change perspective

Ask witnes to recall incident from others perspective
Can Get extra details they hadn’t thought of before and breaks up schemas.


:) CI support plus counrer

Köhnken et al. Meta analysis from 50 studies showed CI provides an 81% increase in correct info. Shows there are real practical benefits to Police using CI. HOWEVER increase in 61% were incorrect compared to standard interview.


Some elements of CI are more valuable :(

Milne and bull found effectiveness of CI may be due to individual elements not whole things. Report everything and reinstate context were most useful. Therefore were over complicated it.


Time consuming CI :(

Cuz its thorough and technical. Police no time to do prophet which could lead to entirely different EWT. Also requires specialist training which is costly and tike consuming. So CI Often inconvenient exp if there r pressures to come up iwht conclusion quickly.


CI good technique for older people :)

Many old ppl may doubt their memory due to negative stereotypes makes them overly cautious about providing details. Can be overcome by CI cuz it aims to put EW at ease and encourages them to give every detail.