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NUR259 - SDLP's > Meningitis > Flashcards

Flashcards in Meningitis Deck (16):
1

There are 3 strains of bacterial meningitis
a) True
b) False

True

2

Bacterial meningitis is...
a) an acute inflammation of the brains grey matter
b) a chronic infection of the medulla
c) a life threatening inflammation of the meninges and spinal cord caused by a bacterial infection
d) inflammation/infection of the optical nerve causing compression of and swelling to the surface of the brain

A life threatening inflammation of the meninges and spinal cord caused by a bacterial infection

3

The incubation period for bacterial meningitis is most commonly:
a) 12-24 hours
b) 3-6 weeks
c) 1-10 days
d) 1 month

1 - 10 days

4

Which is not a typical symptom of meningitic illness?
a) fever
b) high pitched cry
c) photophobia
d) excessive urine output

Excessive urine output

5

Drugs commonly given for the treatment of bacterial meningitis include:
a) cefotaxime
b) penicillin
c) amoxycillin
d) flucloxicillin

Cefotaxime

6

The results of a full blood count test from a child with bacterial meningitis would show...
a) decreased CRP
b) increased neutrophils
c) increased lymphocytes
d) normal white cell count

Increased neutrophils
Increased lymphocytes

7

If a child is suspected of having bacterial meningitis, which investigations are routinely carried out?
a) blood cultures
b) lumbar puncture
c) urea and electrolytes
d) stool sample

Blood cultures
Lumbar puncture
Urea and electrolytes

8

A child could have normal Full Blood Count results if:
a) He/she has been taking oral antibiotics at home
b) Is in the early stages of the disease
c) Is recovering from bacterial meningitis independently
d) Is drinking excessively, thus diluting the concentration of bacterial cells in the blood.

b) Is in the early stages of the disease

9

Which type of isolation is required for the child who has or is suspected of having bacterial meningitis?
a) green - enteric
b) white - strict
c) blue - respiratory
d) pink - wound

c) blue - respiratory

10

Describe what investigations will be required to confirm diagnosis in bacterial meningitis?

Blood culture
Full blood picture
Urea and electrolytes
Blood gases
BGL
Lumbar puncture

11

Write a plan of care for a child with bacterial meningitis?

Infection Control:
PPE- Gown, gloves, mask for first 24 hours after antibiotics commenced
Child isolated
Educate family and visitors about precautions

Hydration:
Strict fluid balance/daily weights
Fluids restricted due to cerebal oedema
Oral care 4hrly
IV site checks hourly

Risk of shock:
Neurological obs/vital signs
Fontanel assessment
Daily head circumference
monitor for seizure activity
monitor skin for none blanching rashes
hearing assessment prior to discharge

Emotional support:
Keep caregivers informed
Listen to concerns & comfort
suggest breaks for parents
involve parents in care
care for breastfeeding mothers

12

Describe the infection control precautions that are required for those that have been in recent contact with a child meningitis?

Course of prophylactic antibiotics- Rifampicin

13

What is Kernig's sign

Severe stiffness of the hamstrings causing an inability to straighten the leg when the hip is flexed to 90 degrees

14

What is Brudzinski's sign

Severe neck stiffness causing a patients hips and knees to flex when the neck is flexed

15

Risk factors of meningitis

Immmunosuppression
A Ventriculoperitoneal shunt
Cochlear implant
CNS Trauma
Recent sinus or Ear Infection

16

Signs and Symptoms of meningitis

Infant:
Fever
Change in feeding pattern
Vomiting
Diarrhoea
Anterior fontanelle may be bulging or flat
May be alert, restless, lethargic or irritable
Rocking or cuddling irritates infant

Child:
Febrile
Altered LOC
Vomiting
Complaints of muscle of joint pain