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Flashcards in Mental Disorders Deck (31):
0

how are psychiatric disorders categorised ?

overlapping categories
psychosis (no insight)- disabling neurosis (insight but life affected)- normal
they are a massive range

1

what are mental disorders in general?

exaggerations of normal behaviours and/or other behaviours which are not apparent in normal behaviour

2

what are psychoses?

1- schizophrenia= flattened mood, 1% pop
2- affective disorders= exaggerated mood, depression, mania, bipolar depression, lifetime risk 10%
3- organic= result of injury- trauma, alcoholism

3

what are neuroses?

poorly defined but include
- anxiety states= worry, fear, out of proportion
-phobic reactions= claustrophobia, agoraphobia
-depressive reactions= milder than depression, clear insight
often a combination

4

how much of the pop is affected by neuroses and who are more likely to suffer?

3-10%
more in patients with mental disorders with increased risk with each episode

5

what are the causes of psychiatric disorders?

sometimes physical injury- rare
familial component/genetic factor
environmental/sociological changes

6

what are psychiatric disorders reflected in ?

neurotransmission changes

7

how are psychiatric disorders measured?

psychiatric tests/symptoms
neurochemical markers
theories are not very justifiable

8

how can mental disorders be diagnosed?

dependent onn observed symptoms
-hamilton depression rating scale - HAM-D
- diagnostic and statistical manual of the mental disorders - DSM-IV
- international classification of diseases - ICD10
these are used to help treat the patient

9

what changes does the DSM-V propose (2013))?

PERSISTENT DEPRESSIVE DISORDER- encompasses both chronic major depressive disorders and dysthymia
REMOVAL OF THE MAJOR DEPRESSION BEREAVEMENT EXCLUSION- leaves more leeway for clinical judgement
NEW CATEGORY OF MIXED ANXIETY/DEPRESSIVE DISORDERS

10

What is dysthymia?

persistent mild depression

11

what are the conditions of depression termed as?

major depresssive disorders or major depression, often MDD

12

how is depression classified?

sad, depressed mood everyday for min of 2 weeks and loss of pleasure(anhedonia)
+4 of the following
- disruption of sleep, concentration and appetite
- recurrent thoughts of death, suicide
- negative self concept
- loss of energy, fatigue
- reactive or endogenous - not clear distinction and not generally recognised

13

what is mania (and hypomania)?

excessive reactions
excessive motor activity, exuberance, enthusiasm
irritability, impatience, anger
grandiose illusions

14

what is bipolar depression ?

swings between depression and mania
hereditary link- more sever cases tend to be genetic

15

what is anxiety ?

PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS= feeling worried, nervous and agitated
often linked to aggression
SOMATIC AND AUTONOMIC EFFECTS= tachycardia, sweating, sleep disorder and tense muscles
ASSOCIATED DISORDERS= phobias and panic attacks
huge overlap with depression - arrested flight behaviour

16

what is schizophrenia ?

- massive area of CNS disorder research because so little is understood
- major impact on health
- progressive illness and serious consequences
overlap in AD because of the cognitive deficits

17

what does SCHIZO stand for and what does phrenia stand for ?

cleave/split

the mind

18

in general what is schizophrenia?

psychiatric disorder- group of illnesses
most severe and least understood
symptomatic onset in early adulthood and persists throughout life

19

what are the major problems with schizophrenia?

-patients cant have a normal life- its very difficult to manage
- no cure
- drugs for treatment are often not effective
-affects people in prime of life (20-39 years)
- cause isnt really known
- expensive on health care- 2-3 billion

20

which sex is more likely to suffer from schizophrenia?

males and females are equally affected
females have 2 peaks at 20 years ad 50 years(menopause)- thought that estrogen has a protective effect

21

what is the incidence of schizophrenia ?

1.2% in most developed countries
250000 in uk

22

how many people die from schizophrenia?

10% due to suicide

23

what are the risk factors of schizophrenia?

genetic- 1% of pop, 10% heritable risk if its a close relative and 46% risk if both parents are affected and 50% concordance in identical twins
environmental exposure in brain development- toxins, viruses, brain damage
combination of factors - likely that environmental determine whether the genetic factors are expressed

24

who are more likely to develop schizophrenia due to environmental factors ?

babies born in the winter
babies which suffered a traumatic birth

25

what are the symptoms of schizophrenia ?

positive- type 1
negative -type 2
cognitive impairment

26

what are the positive symptoms?

hallucinations- aural, visual (especially aural- voices in head)
delusions-persecution complex- paranoia
inappropriate emotions and actions

these are often seen in younger patients

27

what are the negative symptoms?

apathy
depression
social incompetence
loss of insight- dont recognise your own illness

28

what are the cognitive impairments?

attention
memory
executive functions
lack of coordinating thoughts
older patients often express these
postitve usually give way to these

29

what neurochemical systems are affected in schizophrenia?

glutamate system is underactive
dopamine system is overeactive

30

why is it different from other disorders?

its dependent upon the maturation of the brain during development
therefore it isnt caused by decline in age