Flashcards in Mental Disorders Deck (31):
how are psychiatric disorders categorised ?
psychosis (no insight)- disabling neurosis (insight but life affected)- normal
they are a massive range
what are mental disorders in general?
exaggerations of normal behaviours and/or other behaviours which are not apparent in normal behaviour
what are psychoses?
1- schizophrenia= flattened mood, 1% pop
2- affective disorders= exaggerated mood, depression, mania, bipolar depression, lifetime risk 10%
3- organic= result of injury- trauma, alcoholism
what are neuroses?
poorly defined but include
- anxiety states= worry, fear, out of proportion
-phobic reactions= claustrophobia, agoraphobia
-depressive reactions= milder than depression, clear insight
often a combination
how much of the pop is affected by neuroses and who are more likely to suffer?
more in patients with mental disorders with increased risk with each episode
what are the causes of psychiatric disorders?
sometimes physical injury- rare
familial component/genetic factor
what are psychiatric disorders reflected in ?
how are psychiatric disorders measured?
theories are not very justifiable
how can mental disorders be diagnosed?
dependent onn observed symptoms
-hamilton depression rating scale - HAM-D
- diagnostic and statistical manual of the mental disorders - DSM-IV
- international classification of diseases - ICD10
these are used to help treat the patient
what changes does the DSM-V propose (2013))?
PERSISTENT DEPRESSIVE DISORDER- encompasses both chronic major depressive disorders and dysthymia
REMOVAL OF THE MAJOR DEPRESSION BEREAVEMENT EXCLUSION- leaves more leeway for clinical judgement
NEW CATEGORY OF MIXED ANXIETY/DEPRESSIVE DISORDERS
What is dysthymia?
persistent mild depression
what are the conditions of depression termed as?
major depresssive disorders or major depression, often MDD
how is depression classified?
sad, depressed mood everyday for min of 2 weeks and loss of pleasure(anhedonia)
+4 of the following
- disruption of sleep, concentration and appetite
- recurrent thoughts of death, suicide
- negative self concept
- loss of energy, fatigue
- reactive or endogenous - not clear distinction and not generally recognised
what is mania (and hypomania)?
excessive motor activity, exuberance, enthusiasm
irritability, impatience, anger
what is bipolar depression ?
swings between depression and mania
hereditary link- more sever cases tend to be genetic
what is anxiety ?
PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS= feeling worried, nervous and agitated
often linked to aggression
SOMATIC AND AUTONOMIC EFFECTS= tachycardia, sweating, sleep disorder and tense muscles
ASSOCIATED DISORDERS= phobias and panic attacks
huge overlap with depression - arrested flight behaviour
what is schizophrenia ?
- massive area of CNS disorder research because so little is understood
- major impact on health
- progressive illness and serious consequences
overlap in AD because of the cognitive deficits
what does SCHIZO stand for and what does phrenia stand for ?
in general what is schizophrenia?
psychiatric disorder- group of illnesses
most severe and least understood
symptomatic onset in early adulthood and persists throughout life
what are the major problems with schizophrenia?
-patients cant have a normal life- its very difficult to manage
- no cure
- drugs for treatment are often not effective
-affects people in prime of life (20-39 years)
- cause isnt really known
- expensive on health care- 2-3 billion
which sex is more likely to suffer from schizophrenia?
males and females are equally affected
females have 2 peaks at 20 years ad 50 years(menopause)- thought that estrogen has a protective effect
what is the incidence of schizophrenia ?
1.2% in most developed countries
250000 in uk
how many people die from schizophrenia?
10% due to suicide
what are the risk factors of schizophrenia?
genetic- 1% of pop, 10% heritable risk if its a close relative and 46% risk if both parents are affected and 50% concordance in identical twins
environmental exposure in brain development- toxins, viruses, brain damage
combination of factors - likely that environmental determine whether the genetic factors are expressed
who are more likely to develop schizophrenia due to environmental factors ?
babies born in the winter
babies which suffered a traumatic birth
what are the symptoms of schizophrenia ?
positive- type 1
negative -type 2
what are the positive symptoms?
hallucinations- aural, visual (especially aural- voices in head)
delusions-persecution complex- paranoia
inappropriate emotions and actions
these are often seen in younger patients
what are the negative symptoms?
loss of insight- dont recognise your own illness
what are the cognitive impairments?
lack of coordinating thoughts
older patients often express these
postitve usually give way to these
what neurochemical systems are affected in schizophrenia?
glutamate system is underactive
dopamine system is overeactive