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Flashcards in Mental Health Deck (60)
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what are the strengths of ICD-10/DSM categories? (3)

1. Standardisation of diagnostic criteria
2. Allows epidemiological studies, geographical comparisons of prevalence + incidence
3. Alphanumerical format, allows quick referral and easy addition of categories.


what are the limitations of the ICD-10/DSM categories? (3)

1. TWO different criteria sets…who uses what?
2. Schizophrenia diagnosis relies on many psychotic symptoms, which are a common final pathway in other disease
3. Just groups commonly co-existing symptom patterns, without understanding of underlying cause/nature.


what are the roles of an advocate? (5)

1. listen to views and concerns
2. help explore your options/rights without advising
3. give info to help informed decision making
4. help you contact people, or contact on your behalf
5. accompany and support you in meetings/appointments


what is everyone detained under the mental health act legally entitled to?

professional mental health advocate = Statutory Advocacy
-Independent MH Advocate (IMHA) or an…
-IM Capacity A (IMCA)
-Otherwise can be professional, family, friends, carers or you can be your own (self-advocacy)
-Helps ensure the patient’s opinions + ideas are articulated clearly and taken seriously.


describe the epidemiology of deliberate self harm?

-Suicide M>F
-Previous attempts ↑ risk of success x40
-M aged 30-44 yrs are the group in which suicide is most common.
-↑ common on evenings, weekends, spring + autumn.
-Rates ↑ fastest in western countries
-Eastern Europe – former USSR has ↑est rates
-Presence of these factors influence RISK to others + self ->may manage differently.


what are the sociodemographic risk factors for self harm?

• Elderly
• ↓Social status
•↓ Educational status
•Unmarried, separated, divorced, widowed.
•Unemployed/insecure employment
•Students, prisoners, immigrants, refugees
•Farmers, sailors + female doctors
•Lack of social support


what are the clinical risk factors for self harm?

•FHx of MH disorder
•Specific illnesses have ↑er rate: anorexia, severe depression, psychosis, BAD, PD, substance misuse
•Recent post-discharge period
•Previous attempts
• Access to lethal methods


what is the role of GP in the mental health team?

diagnosis + community management


what is the role of CPN in the mental health team?

Talk through problems, offer advice + support, give meds + monitor Fx


what is the role of psychiatrists in the mental health team?

Diagnosis + primary assessment ->prescribe medication


what is the role of OT in the mental health team?

teach skills, help ↑ confidence + independence


what is the role of social workers in the mental health team?

money, housing, childcare


what are the roles of key workers in the mental health team?

manage cases


what is the role of pharmacists in the mental health team?

dispensing meds, expert advice to docs/nurses


describe the relative impact of mental health problems in primary care?

-1° care – chronic, milder, well-controlled cases - depression, grief reactions, dementia, anxiety, and substance abuse.
-25% of GP consultations = MH
-2° care – ACUTE 1° disorder, self-harm/attempted suicide + other crises (i.e. mania), ↑↑risk of suicide + self-harm, forensic cases.


what are the most common illness in primary care?

Mood/affective disorders – dysthymia, depression.
Anxiety – GAD, OCD, panic.
DEPRESSION most common
Conditions that present more acutely ->2° care


what is the impact of race/ethnicity, culture and age on schizophrenia?

-↑ young men > women
-BME groups ↑
-↑ in socially disadvantaged groups
-Incidence stable over time (any ↑ could be explained by ethnic make-up of study population)


what is the impact of race/ethnicity, culture and age on affective psychoses?

-M = F
-No evidence for geographical/neighbourhood effects on incidence
-Rest as for schizophrenia


describe the principles underpinning the organisation of UK mental health services?

Cornerstone of care is well structured + coordinated system @ local level:
-Built around individual’s needs + views of users/carers •Rapidly accessible
-Range of services functioning as a system -Sensitive to local needs, resources + culture


how does current UK mental health services differ from the past?

Mainly COMMUNITY-based – formerly psychiatrist @ centre, with long inpatient stay


what is the role of CAMHs?

look after children + adolescents - often eating disorder team


what is the role of the addiction clinic?

Substance misuse specialists, community clinics


what is the role of learning disability sevices?

look after adults and young people


what is the role of liaison psychiatry teams?

mainly work in general hospitals + 1° care – aims to bridge gap between physical + psychological symptoms (i.e. someone with diabetes who’s depressed may benefit from psychological intervention – evidence shows ↑glycaemic control)


what is the role of the assertive outreach team?

community team caring for severe + personality disorders


what is the role of early intervention for psychosis teams?

Deal with 18-35yrs with 1st episode psychosis. Follow-up for years.


what is the role of forensic teams?

work with those who’ve committed serious crimes


what is the role of memory assessment?

old age pyschiatrists, treating + advising upon dementia care.


describe primary health promotion strategies for mental health wellbeing?

1. Parenting programmes – for those with children with conduct disorder – prevent ->PD
2. Healthy visitor interventions – for women at ↑ risk of postnatal depression
3. School-based programmes – preventing violence, bullying, offending + reoffending
4. Screening + brief intervention – Alcohol CAGE questions, brief advice
5. Debt advice
6. Physical activity campaigns
7. Anti-stigma campaigns
8. Promote well-being + early depression detection at WORK


describe community support for patients suffering from psychiatric disorders in old age?

•CPN + care assistant visits allow people to stay in own home – private or social services funding. Helps relatives, though may be expensive!
•Day centres – available for socialising, provide food + place of contact with MH practitioners
•Respite care – giving carers a break