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Flashcards in Mental Health Paramed Deck (49)
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Biomedical model

Each disease has a specific cause and is caused by some sort of identifiable underlying biological entity

Best managed via technical medical approach
Looks at individual cause and effect

1.Biological- disease is the occurrence of natural events doesnt take into account social factors

2.mechanical- sickness involves particular organ/body parts rather than the whole person

3.scientific- scientifically based methods of treatments are most appropriate



Deviation from the norm and responded to by biochemical, electrical and anatomical interventions



Complete physical, mental and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity


Biopsychosocial model

Multifactorial model that takes into account not only biological factors but also psychological and social.

Focuses on cause and effect

Social (society, community, family)
psychological (cognition, emotion, motivation)
biological (organs, tissues, cells)


Web of causation model

There is no one single factor or cause of disease that many variables interact

Identification of risk factors leads to a focus on prevention aimed at individuals


Cognitive behaviour therapy

Aims to help you change the way that you think, feel and behave

Used to treat mental illness and physical problems

Based on educational model


ABC model

Beliefs- cognition About situation
Consequences- way we feel and behave


RET (Rational emotive therapy)

people are born with the potential to be rational as well as irrational

induce people to examine and change some of their most basic values

its not the activating event that causes dysfunction but the irrational beliefs that causes distress


Definition of Stress

the condition that results when a persons environment transactions lead the individual to perceive a discrepancy between the demands of a situation and the resources of the persons biological, psychological or social systems



Definition of Resilience

An ability to avoid, overcome or adapt to adverse circumstances

-something that is learned.
-ability to bounce back after excessive stress
-ability of an individual to maintain healthy psychological and physical well being despite being exposed to adversity


Definition of Self efficacy

belief that we can succeed at something we want to do


Social support

support that is supplied to a person by other individuals/groups that better enable an individual to cope with life e.g family, friends,colleagues


Health belief model

percieved threat depends on:
-percieved seriousness
-percieved susceptibility
-percieved benefits must exceed percieved barriers/cost
-demographic, socio-psychological

doesnt take into account emotional decisions


Theory of reasoned action

people have intentions based on attitudes which predict behaviour
attitude regarding behaviour is based on beliefs about the outcome of the behaviour, person has to believe that the behaviour is a good thing


Stages of change model

looks at readiness to change.

Precontemplation- not considering changing may never have thought about it

Contemplation- aware a problem exists, are considering changing within the next few months

Preparation- ready to try/change, plan to pursue goals

Action- 6months effort to change in behaviour

maintenance- work to maintain successful behavioural changes


Health- protective behaviour

Definition- any activity people perform to maintain/promote their health

e.g eating properly
drinking moderately
not smoking
wearing seatbelts


Operant conditioning

behaviours antecedent and/or its consequences to infuence the occurence and form of behaviour

modification of voluntary or operant behaviour



postitive following a behaviour with a pleasant consequence or negative, taking away something unpleasant e.g attention



the tendency for a behaviour to weaken when the controlling consequences are eliminated



behaviour supressed by an aversive consequence



watching people and recreating their behaviours


Substance abuse defintion

is when
-clear and persistent pattern of pathological use of a substance
- least one of the following problems in a 12 month period


negative reinforcement

behaviour is strengthened when it is followed by the removal of an aversive stimulus


Shiftwork definition

working outside the normal daylight hours
rotate around the clock, constantly changing work times


Consequences of shiftwork

-difficulty concentrating
-can aggregate health conditions

this can be due to stress, bodily functions, sleep deprivation


Circadian Rhythm

biological 24 hour cycle

-cycle continues even when normal day/night pattern has been changed
-body has more than 100 rhythms

PACEMAKER- Suprachiasmatic Nuclei, regulates firing of nerve cells that set circadian rhythms


Coping definition

process by which people try to manage the perceived discrepancy between demands and resources they appraise in a stressful situation


General Adaptation Syndrome

what happens to the body when high arousal levels are prolonged

Alarm reaction(fight or flight)- to mobilise bodies resources, very high arousal (cannot be sustained)

Stage of Resistance- body tries to adapt to the stressor, increased physiological arousal, increase susceptibility to to other health problems

Stage of exhaustion- prolonged arousal, long term ill health/death


Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT)
definition and cognition element

Aims to help you change the way you think, feel and behave
used to treat mental health/ physical problems
based on educational model

COGNITIVE- includes our ideas,mental images, belief, attitudes
thinking can trigger/fuel certain health problems
needs to identify current thought patterns to identify whats triggering the health problem
aims to change your ways of thinking to avoid it

Common sense model
Cognition model


Cognitive Behavioural Therapy

Behavioural component

Change any behaviours that are harmful

e.g exposing pt to certain situations that make them anxious
rewards for desired behaviour
observing others

Antecedents- trigger of response
Beliefs- cognition about situations
Consequences- way we feel/behave

tend to blame trigger for the way we feel but its beliefs that make us the way we feel