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Flashcards in meta-analysis Deck (13)
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1

Describe systematic reviews

a comprehensive assessment of all the relevant research in order to answer a research hypothesis

2

Which are considered to be the highest standard of systematic review?

Cochraine reviews

3

Describe a meta-analysis

combines quantitative information from independent studies addressing the same question

4

When should a meta-analysis be carried out?

when the studies are too small
original studies are not generalisable
to make the effect estimate more precise

5

When should meta-analysis not be carried out?

when the studies are too small
When the design / demographics / research questions are too diverse
When there is no consistent outcome measure
When the studies are at high risk of bias

6

Describe fixed-effects meta-analysis

simplest
assumes no heterogeneity between the studies
Wi=i/Vi where vi is variance

7

Describe heterogeneity

due to different protocols
I squared test is the test for heterogeneity

8

Describe random effects meta-analysis

weightings here more heavily emphasise the smaller studies compared to the fixed effects model

9

Describe sub-group analysis

method of investigating heterogeneity
splits participant data into different groups
multiple testing risk
pre-specified > post-hoc

10

Describe sensitivity analysis

includes comparison of the differences between fixed and random effects models
always should be viewed as exploratory

11

Describe publication bias

positive findings are much more likely to be published
this leads to an overestimation of the effects

12

What other types of bias are there?

time lag bias
location bias
citation bias
language bias
outcome reporting bias

13

Describe individual participant meta-analysis

combining raw data from existing studies
good for observational studies
more politically difficult