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Flashcards in Metabolism Deck (10):
0

Sum of all the chemical reactions in a cell, tissue or the whole body

Can either be catabolic or anabolic

Metabolism

1

Kinds of metabolic pathway

Anabolic

Catabolic

Amphibolic

2

Synthesis of compounds from smaller raw materials

Endergonic and divergent process

Examples: protein and triglyceride synthesis, glycogenesis

Anabolic

3

Breakdown of larger molecules

Usually oxidative reactions

Exergonic and convergent process

Produces reducing equivalents and ATP --> mainly via the respiratory chain

Examples: glycolysis, beta-oxidation, glycogenolysis

Catabolic

4

Crossroads of metabolism, the link between anabolic and catabolic pathways

Examples: citric acid (Krebs) cycle

Amphibolic

5

Regulators of metabolism

Signals from within the cell

Communication between cells

Second messenger systems

6

Signals from within the cell

Substrate availability

Product inhibition

Allosteric activators/inhibitors

7

Communication between cells

Direct contact --- gap junctions

Synaptic signaling -- neurotransmitters

Endocrine signaling -- hormones

8

Second messenger systems

Calcium/inositol triphosphate (ITP)

Adenylyl cyclase system (cAMP)

Guanylate cyclase system (cGMP)

9

Membrane bound enzyme that converts ATP to cyclic AMP or cAMP

In response to hormones (eg glucagon and epinephrine)

cAMP hydrolyzed to 5' -AMP by cAMP phosphodiesterase

Adenylyl cyclase system