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Flashcards in Minerals Deck (19):
0

About 3-4g present in the body, 2/3 of which is in hemoglobin

Iron

1

Storage form of iron in liver, spleen, bone marrow, intestinal mucosa, pancreas, myocardium, and other tissues

More abundant storage form when the tissue stores are low

Ferritin

2

Partially denatured derivatives of ferritin

Predominates when tissue stores are high

Hemosiderin

3

Iron transport protein in plasma

Transferrin

4

Most common micronutrient deficiency worldwide

When iron becomes scarce in the body:
- storage iron is mobilized first
- impairment of hemoglobin synthesis causes anemia
- impairment of iron- containing enzymes, impairing multiple cellular functions

⬇️ total plasma iron, ⬇️ transferrin saturation, ⬇️ serum ferritin, ⬆️ total iron binding capacity

Iron deficiency anemia

5

Iron overload syndrome with progressive hemosiderosis and resulting organ damage

May lead to liver cirrhosis, liver cancer, diabetes mellitus, cardiomyopathy, hyperpigmentation of the skin, endocrine disorders, and joint pain

Seen mainly in older men

⬆️ total plasma iron, ⬆️ transferrin saturation, ⬆️ serum ferritin, ⬆️ total iron binding capacity

Treated by repeated phlebotomy

Hemochromatosis

6

Most abundant trace mineral in the body after iron

Total body stores of about 1.5 to 2.5g

Constituent of the zinc metalloenzymes
- include carbonic anhydrase, cytoplasmic superoxide dismutase, alcohol dehydrogenase, carboxypeptidases A and B, DNA and RNA polymerases, and many others

In zinc finger proteins, it serves a structural role by stabilizing small loops in the polypeptide

Dietary sources: meat, nuts, beans, wheat germ

Zinc

7

Leads to dermatitis and poor wound healing, hair loss, neuropsychic impairment, decreased taste acuity, and, in children, poor growth and testicular atrophy

Zinc deficiency

8

Rare excessively inherited disease with dermatitis, diarrhea, and alopecia due to impaired intestinal zinc absorption

Treated with high doses of oral zinc

Unable to produce zinc

Acrodermatitis enteropathica

9

About 80-110mg in the adult human body

Major cofactor of enzymes that use either molecular oxygen or an oxygen derivative as one of their substrates
- cytochrome oxidase, dopamine B-hydroxylase, monoamine oxidase, tyrosinase,

Copper

10

Present with macrocytic hypochromic anemia, leukopenia, hemorrhagic vascular changes, bone demineralization, Hypercholesterolemia, and neurological problems

Seen in patients receiving total parenteral nutrition and in infants being fed copper-deficient formulas

Copper deficiency

11

X- linked recessive disorder caused by the deficient of an ATP-dependent membrane transporter for copper

Impaired transfer of copper from intestinal mucosal cells to the blood, and intracellular transport is abnormal as well

Growth retardation, mental deficiency, seizures, arterial aneurysms, bone demineralization, brittle hair

Kinky hair

Unable to absorb copper

Menkes syndrome

12

Hepatolenticular degenration

Intestinal absorption of copper is intact, but it's biliary excretion is blocked

Copper accumulation in liver and brain, with resulting liver damage, neurological deterioration, or both

Kayser-Fleisher rings

Treated with D-penicillamine, which forms a soluble, excretable copper complex

Accumulation of copper on the liver and brain

Wilson disease

13

Stimulates the activity of many enzymes, but can be replaced by magnesium in most cases

MANGANESE

Manganese madness: excess can cause psychosis and Parkinsonism

14

Occurs in a few oxidase enzymes, including xanthine oxidase

Tx: allopurinol (gout)

Molybdnenum

15

In the form of selenocysteine, occurs in about 20 human proteins, including the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase

Selenium

16

Low selenium content causing cardiomyopathy, endemic in parts of China

Keshan disease

17

Halogen needed for the synthesis of thyroid hormones

Iodine

18

Fluoride ion can be incorporated in the inorganic substance of bones and teeth

Fluorine