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Flashcards in Metabolism control points Deck (29):
1

What are the control points for glycolysis?

  1. Transport of glucose into cell (muscle)
  2. Hexokinase (muscle), glucokinase (liver)
  3. Phosphofructokinase 1
  4. Pyruvate kinase

2

What are the regulators of glucose transport into cells?

Insulin (via GluT4 transporters)

3

What are the regulators of phosphofructokinase 1?

Intracellular:

  1. AMP +
  2. F2,6BP + (liver, cardiac muscle)
  3. F6P +
  4. ATP -
  5. Citrate -

Extracellular:

  1. Adrenaline +/-
  2. Insulin +/-
  3. Glucagon -

4

What are the regulators of F2,6BP synthesis?

- Insulin promotes dephosphorylation of PFK2/FBPase 2 complex. Activates liver PFK2.

- Glucagon promotes phosphorylation of PFK2/FBPase complex. Deactivates liver PFK2.

- Adrenaline promotes phosphorylation of PFK2/FBPase complex. Activates cardiac PFK2 and deactivates liver PFK2.

5

What are the regulators of pyruvate kinase?

  1. G6P +

6

What are the control points for gluconeogenesis?

  1. Glucose 6-phosphotase
  2. FBPase 1
  3. Pyruvate carboxylase

 

7

What are the regulators of glucose 6-phosphotase?

  1. Compartmentation into ER

8

What are the regulators of FBPase 1?

  1. AMP -
  2. F2,6BP -
  3. ATP 

9

What are the regulators of pyruvate carboxylase?

  1. Acetyl-CoA +

10

What are the control points for glycogen metabolism?

1. Glycogen synthase

2. Glycogen phosphorylase

11

What are the regulators of glycogen synthase?

  1. G6P +
  2. Phosphorylation (via PKA/GSK) -
  3. Dephosphorylation (via protein phosphotase 1) +

12

What are the regulators of glycogen phosphorylase?

  1. AMP +
  2. Ca2+ +
  3. G6P -
  4. ATP -
  5. Phosphorylation (via phosphorylase kinase) +
  6. Dephosphorylation (via protein phosphotase 1) -

13

What are the regulators of phosphorylase kinase?

  1. PKA +

14

What are the control points for the link reaction?

  1. Pyruvate dehydrogenase

15

What are the regulators of pyruvate dehydrogenase?

  1. Phosphorylation (via PDH kinase) -
  2. Dephosphorylation (via PDH phosphotase) +

16

What are the regulators of PDH kinase?

  1. Acetyl-CoA +
  2. ATP +
  3. NADH +
  4. Pyruvate -

17

What are the regulators of PDH phosphotase?

  1. Ca2+ +
  2. Insulin (liver, adipose) +

18

What are the control points for the CAC?

  1. Citrate synthase
  2. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 
  3. α-ketoglutatate dehydrogenase

19

What are the regulators of citrate synthase?

  1. ATP -
  2. Acetyl-CoA -
  3. NADH -

20

What are the regulators of isocitrate dehydrogenase?

  1. ADP +
  2. Ca2+ +
  3. NADH -
  4. ATP -

21

What are the regulators of α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase?

  1. Ca2+ +
  2. Succinyl-CoA -
  3. NADH -

22

What are the control points for β-oxidation?

  1. Hormone-sensitive TAG lipase
  2. Re-esterification of TAGs
  3. Carnitine shuttle
  4. NAD+ and FAD

23

What are the regulators of hormone-sensitive TAG lipase?

  1. Phosphorylation (via PKA) +
  2. Dephosphorylation (via protein phosphotase) -

24

What are the regulators of the carnitine shuttle?

  1. Malonyl-CoA -

25

What are the control points for fatty acid synthesis?

  1. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase
  2. Citrate shuttle
  3. TAG synthase

26

What are the regulators of ACC?

  1. Citrate +
  2. Dephosphorylation (via protein phosphotase) +
  3. Acyl-CoA -
  4. Phosphorylation (via AMPK) -

27

What are the regulators of AMPK?

  1. AMP +
  2. ATP -

28

What are the regulators of the carnitine shuttle?

  1. Citrate +
  2. NADH +
  3. ATP +
  4. Ca2+ -
  5. ADP -

29

What are the regulators of TAG synthase?

  1. Glucose +
  2. Insulin +