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What are two other names for intravenous pyelogram?

urogram & excretory urography


What dye do they use and where is it injected?

Iodo-benzene ring that is water soluble (contains iodine).
Injected into the antecubital fossa.


Approximately how long does it take the kidney to excrete the dye?



What are some contraindications to IVP?

a. Hypersensitivity to iodine based drugs
b. Multiple myeloma and amyloidosis
c. Combined renal and hepatic disease
d. Renal failure
e. Thyroid disease
f. Oligura
g. Advanced dehydration
h. Anxiety


What is the best modality to demonstrate renal outline?
a. Plain film
b. Ultrasound
c. Urography

b. Ultrasound


Which kidney is easier to image with ultrasonography?

right b/c of the excellent acoustic window of the liver


Ultrasound is >90% sensitive for what in the kidneys?

obstruction --> will see dilation of calyces, pelvis and/or ureter (hydronephrosis)


What is US good for when differentiating between renal masses?

Solid vs cystic components


What is the M/C backflow from an over distended pyleocalyceal system?

Pyelolymphatic (ruptures in the fornices causes escape of contrast into lymphatics, opacifies them, and then travels back toward the vertebrae).

Others: pyleosinus (pyelointerstitial) backflow, pyelovenous backflow & pyelotubular backflow


What are the indications for a renal angiography?

a. Idiopathic hypertension
b. Small kidney
c. Asymmetrical enlarged kidney -- from tumor, cysts or trauma


How does renal angiography help in demonstrating a renal tumor?

Renal angiography with epinephrine will constrict the normal blood vessels but the tumor vessels will NOT react!


What are some indications for a cystography (cystourethrogram)?

a. Evaluation of acquired disorders of micturition
b. Low pressure vesicoureteral reflux
c. Traumatic injury of the bladder


What are some indications for a voiding cystourethrogram?

a. Lower UTI obstruction
b. High pressure vesico-ureteral reflux
c. Kids with recurrent UTI (suspected reflux)


What is the name of the procedure to assess the uterus and fallopian tubes?

Hysterosalpingography -- uses contrast media and fluoroscopy


What is the best modality for assessing renal trauma?

CT with contrast


What is the modality of choice for evaluation of acute flank pain?

CT (without contrast for evaluation of stones)