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Flashcards in Micro Deck (54)
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1
Q

Name the naked virus families

A

Papillomavirus, adenovirus, picornovirus, polymovirus, calcivirus, parvovirus, reovirus, hepevirus

Give PAPP smears and CPR to a naked HEPPY

2
Q

Name the DNA viruses

A

Hepadna, Herpes, Adeno, Pox, Parvo, Papilloma, Polyoma

HHAPPPPy

3
Q

Name the segmented viral familes

A

Bunya, orthomyoxo, arena, reo

BOAR

4
Q

What are the 2 members of the polyomarvirus family?

A

JC virus and BK virus

5
Q

Pox virus family members

A

Smallpox, vaccinia, molluscum contagiousum

6
Q

Reovirus family members

A

rotavirus and coltivirus (colorado tick fever)

7
Q

Picornoavirus family members

A

Polio virus, echovirus, rhinovirus, Coxsackie virus, HAV

PERCH

8
Q

Hepevirus family members

A

HEV

9
Q

Calcivirus family member

A

Norovirus

10
Q

Flavivirus family members

A

HCV, yellow fever, dengue, st louis encephalitis, WNV

11
Q

Retrovirus family members

A

HTLV and HIV (reverse transcriptase)

12
Q

Togavirus family members

A

Rubella, eastern and western equine encephalitis

13
Q

Orthomyxovirus family member

A

influenza

14
Q

Paramyxovirus family members

A

Parainfluenza, RSV (ribavirin), Measles, mumps

15
Q

Rhabdovirus

A

Rabies

16
Q

Filoviridae

A

Ebola

17
Q

Arenavirus

A

LCMB/Lassa fever

18
Q

Bunyavirus

A

rift valley fever, california encephalitis, hanta virus

19
Q

Obligate aerobes

A

Nocardia, Pseudomonas, Mycobacterium, Bacillus

Nagging Pests Must Breath

20
Q

Obligate anaerobes

A

Clostridium, Bacteroides, actinomyces

Anaerobes Can’t Breath Air

21
Q

Intracellular

A

Rickettsia, chlamydia

22
Q

Facultatively intracellular

A

Salmonella, Niesierria, Brucella, Mycobacterium, Listeria, Francisella, Legionella, Yersinia

Some Nasty Bugs May Live Facultatively

23
Q

Encapsulated

A

S. Pneumo, H flu, Niessieria, E coli, Salmonella, Klebsiella, Group B strep

SHiNE SKiS

24
Q

Giemsa stain

A

Chlamydia, Boreelia, Rickettsia, trypanosomal, plasmodium

Certain Bugs Really Try my Patience

25
Q

Catalase +

A

Pseuda, listeria, aspergillus, candida, E coli, S aureus, serratia

You need PLACESS for your cats

26
Q

Which staph are novobiocin resistant and which are sensitive?

A

Saprophyticus is resistant, Epidermis is sensitive

On the office’s staph retreat, there was NO S(aprophyticus)tRE(pi)Ss

27
Q

Which of the streptococci are optochin sensitive/resistant?

A

Optochin – Viridans is Resistant; Pneumonia is Sensitive

OVRPS

28
Q

Which of the streptococci are bacitracin sensitive/resistant?

A

Bacitracin – group B strep are Resistant; group A strep are Sensitive

B-BRAS

29
Q

unpasteurized dairy, undulating fevers, caseating granulomas

A

Brucella – gram - coccobacilli, facultatively intracellular

Doxy + gent

30
Q

lymphadenopathy w/ skin ulcers w/ black base or pneumonia/ocular involvement, history of rabbit contact

A

Francisella – Gram - and requires cysteine for growth

transmitted by tick bites

31
Q

LAD w/ cellulitis following cat/dog bite

A

Pasteurella – gram negative coccobacilli w/ bipolar staining, oxidase +, catalase +

Can also cause osteomyelelitis
treat with penicillin G

32
Q

RNA viruses that replicated in the nucleus

A

Orthomyoxovirus, HIV

33
Q

DNA virus that replicates in the cytoplasm

A

Poxvirus

34
Q

Normal steps in DNA virus replication

A

In nucleus DNA genome is transcribed with DNA dependented RNA polymerase, and these RNA transcripts will go on to make proteins needed for viral replication

genome will be copied with DNA dependent DNA polymerase from host cell.

35
Q

flu like symtpoms w/ jaundice/photophobia

A

Leptospira interrogans – spirochete, spread through animal urine. Prevalent w/ surfers and in tropics

Can cause Weil’s disease = vasculitis w/ hemorrhage, kidney damage, and liver damage – due to immune response

36
Q

bird shop owner w/ headache, fever, cough + sore throat and muscle aches. CXR w/ patchy pneumonitis

A

C. psittaci – has same life cycle as C. trachomatis

visualize with Giemsa stain

37
Q

cattle farmer w/ pneumonia and - weil felix reaction. Patient does not have rash.

A

Coxiella burnettie (q fever)

38
Q

C. trachomatis serotypes
A-C
D-K
L1,L2, L3

A
A-C = blindness due to follicular conjunctivitis in Africa
D-K = Urethritis/PID, neonatal PNA/conjunctivitis 
L1,L2,L3 = Lymphogranuloma venereum = regional LA that can drain pus, follows papule appearance
39
Q

blocks peptidyltransferase at 50s ribosomal subunit

A

Chloramphenicol

40
Q

Blocks peptide transfer at 50s ribosomal subunit

A

Clindamycin

41
Q

Blocks formation of initation complex and causes misreading of mRNA (30s)

A

Aminoglycosides (gent, neo, amikacin, tobra, strepto)

42
Q

bind to 30s and prevent attachment of aminoacyl-tRNA

A

tetracyclines

43
Q

block translocaiton, bind to the 23s rRNA of the 50S ribosomal subunit

A

Macrolides (azithro, clarithro, erythro)

44
Q

two protazoa that can cause terrible diarrhea in immunocompromised individuals and have cysts that stain acid fast

A

Crypto and Isospora belli

45
Q

This organisms is often associated with contact lens related eye infections

A

Acanthamoeba (causes intractable ulcerative keratitis)

46
Q

Which organism is responsible for causing ulcerating granulomata of the genital skin and mucous membranes? Often associated with travel to New Guinea.

A

Calymmatobacterium donovani – biopsy will show macrophages with Donovan bodies (small round coccobacilli within cystic areas of the cytoplasm)

47
Q

What are transposons?

A

“Jumping genes” – segments of DNA capable of movement from one location to another inside a cell. They are flanked by indirect repeats – sequences that are complementary and antiparallel to one another. Within these sequences are the coding for the enzymes that mediate the movement – transposase genes.

48
Q

First generation cephalosporins

A

Have a PH in their name, except for cefazolin

Cephalothin, cephapirin, cephradine, cephalexin

49
Q

Second generation cephalosporins

Which ones cover anaerobes

A

Have fam, fa, fur, fox, or tea in their names

cefamandole, cefaclor, cefuroxime, cefoxitin, cefotetan

cefoxitin, cefmetazole, cefotetan (a fox who met an anaerobe for tea)

50
Q

Third generation cephalosporins

A

have a T for tri

Ceftraixone, ceftazidime, cefotaxime, ceftizoxime, ceftibuten

51
Q

How do enterococci become resistant to aminoglycosides?

A

They have aminoglycoside modifying enzymes that transfer different chemical groups (like acetyl groups, adenyl groups, and phosphate groups) to the aminoglycosides outside of the bacterium, thereby decreasing the ability of the drugs to bind to ribosomes.

52
Q

When two different viruses infect a cell they can exchange information. How does this differ for segmented genome viruses vs. dsDNA genomes?

A

Recombination: exchange of genes between 2 c-somes by crossing over within regions of signifcant base sequence homology

Reassortment: when viruses with segmented genomes exchange segments. High frequency recombination occurs and can cause pandemics.

53
Q

Which family of DNA viruses gets its envelope from budding through the host nuclear membrane?

A

Hepersviruses

54
Q

How does congenital syphilis infection cause the saber shin deformity?

A

spirochetes localize to the periosterum, where they produce an active inflammation w/ many plasma cells, causing a reactive periosteal deposition of bone on medial and anterior surface of the tibia.