Flashcards in Micro - Clinical Bacteriology (Gram - Misc) Deck (46)
What is the functional limitation of Chlamydiae, and why?
They are obligate intracellular organisms that cause mucosal infections; Chalmydiae cannot make their own ATP; Think: "Chlamys = cloak (intracellular)"
What (broad) kind of infections does Chlamydiae cause?
What are the 2 forms of Chlamydiae? What is important to remember about the differing roles/characteristics of these two forms?
(1) Elementary body - Infectious, enters cell via endocytosis. Transforms into reticulate body (2) Reticulate body - Replicates in cell by fissure, recognizes into elementary bodies; Think: "Elementary = Enfectious, Enters cell, Endocytosis, Reticulate = Replicates once in cell"
What 4 diseases/conditions does Chlamydia trachomatis cause?
(1) Reactive arthritis (Reiter syndrome) (2) follicular Conjuctivitis (3) Nongonococcal urethritis (4) Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
Besides C. trachomatis, what are the other species of Chlamydiae? How are they transmitted? What disease/condition do they cause?
(1) C. pneumoniae (2) C. psittaci; Transmitted by aerosol; Atypical pneumonia
What are the treatment options for Chlamydiae infection? Which is favored, and why?
Azithromycin (favored because one-time treatment) or Doxycycline
What is a notable reservoir for Chlamydophila psittaci?
How is a lab diagnosis of Chlamydiae infection made?
Cytoplasmic inclusion seen on Giemsa or fluorescent antibody-stained smear
What is unusual about the Chlamydial cell wall?
Lacks muramic acid
What are the serotypes of Chlamydia trachomatis? List them based on similar presentations.
(1) Types A, B, and C (2) Types D-K (3) Types L1, L2, and L3
What disease/condition(s) do C. trachomatis serotypes A, B, and C cause, and where in the world?
Chronic infection, cause blindness due to follicular conjuctivitis in Africa; Think: "ABC = Africa, Blindness, (Conjuctivitis)/Chronic infection and D-K - everything else"
What disease/condition(s) do C. trachomatis serotypes D-K cause?
Urethritis/PID, ectopic pregnancy, neonatal pneumonia (staccato cough), or neonatal conjuctivitis
How can neonatal Chlamydial disease be acquired?
During passage through infected birth canal
What disease/condition(s) do C. trachomatis Types L1, L2, and L3 cause? What characterizes it? How is it treated?
Lymphogranuloma venereum; small , painless ulcers on genitals => swollen, painful inguinal lymph nodes that ulcerated ("buboes"); treat with doxycycline
What condition/disease does Mycoplasma pneumoniae classically cause? How does it present clinically and appear on X-ray?
Atypical "walking" pneumonia; Insidious onset, headache, nonproductive cough, diffuse interstitial infiltrate, X-ray looks worse than patient
With what immunological finding(s) and/or process(es) is Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection (Atypical "walking" pneumonia) associated? What can result from this/these immunological finding(s)?
High titer of cold agglutinins (IgM), which can agglutinate or lyse RBCs
On what type of agar is Mycoplasma pneumoniae grown?
How is Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection treated? What antibiotic is ineffective, and why?
Macrolide, doxycycline, or Fluoraquinolone (Penicillin ineffective since Mycoplasma have no cell wall)
How do Mycoplasma pneumoniae appear on Gram stain, and why?
Not seen on Gram stain; No cell wall
What important content does Mycoplasma pneumonia contain is its membrane, and what role does this play?
Bacterial membrane contains sterols for stability
In what patient population is Mycoplasma pneumonia more common? In what populations/settings are frequent outbreaks seen?
Patients < 30 years of age; Frequent outbreaks in military recruits and prisons
What kind of organism is Gardnerella vaginalis, particularly in terms of morphology and gram stain?
A pleomorphic, gram-variable rod
What condition does Gardnerella vaginalis cause, and how does this condition present?
Causes Vaginosis, presenting as a gray vaginal discharge with a fishy smell but nonpainful (vs vaginitis)
With what is Gardnerella vaginalis associated? What is an important distinction to make with regards to this association?
Associated with sexual activity, but not an STD
What pathogen causes Bacterial vaginosis? What characterizes/defines this condition?
Gardnerella vaginalis; Bacterial vaginosis is characterized by overgrowth of certain anaerobic bacteria in vagina
What pathogen causes Bacterial vaginosis? What microscopic finding suggests Bacterial vaginosis?
Gardnerella vaginalis; Clue cells (vaginal epithelial cells covered with bacteria) are visible under the microscope
How is Bacterial vaginitis due to Gardnerella vaginalis treated?
Metronidazole or (to treat anaerobic bacteria) clindamycin
What is a way to remember the histological finding, primary presentation, location, and pathogen associated with Bacteria vaginosis?
i don't have a CLUE why I smell FISH in the VAGINA GARDEN = Clue cells, gray discharge with fishy smell, caused by Gardnerella vaginalis
What is the treatment for all Rickettsial disease and vector-borne illness?