Micro - Clinical Bacteriology (Gram - Misc) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Micro - Clinical Bacteriology (Gram - Misc) Deck (46)
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What is the functional limitation of Chlamydiae, and why?

They are obligate intracellular organisms that cause mucosal infections; Chalmydiae cannot make their own ATP; Think: "Chlamys = cloak (intracellular)"


What (broad) kind of infections does Chlamydiae cause?

Mucosal infections


What are the 2 forms of Chlamydiae? What is important to remember about the differing roles/characteristics of these two forms?

(1) Elementary body - Infectious, enters cell via endocytosis. Transforms into reticulate body (2) Reticulate body - Replicates in cell by fissure, recognizes into elementary bodies; Think: "Elementary = Enfectious, Enters cell, Endocytosis, Reticulate = Replicates once in cell"


What 4 diseases/conditions does Chlamydia trachomatis cause?

(1) Reactive arthritis (Reiter syndrome) (2) follicular Conjuctivitis (3) Nongonococcal urethritis (4) Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)


Besides C. trachomatis, what are the other species of Chlamydiae? How are they transmitted? What disease/condition do they cause?

(1) C. pneumoniae (2) C. psittaci; Transmitted by aerosol; Atypical pneumonia


What are the treatment options for Chlamydiae infection? Which is favored, and why?

Azithromycin (favored because one-time treatment) or Doxycycline


What is a notable reservoir for Chlamydophila psittaci?



How is a lab diagnosis of Chlamydiae infection made?

Cytoplasmic inclusion seen on Giemsa or fluorescent antibody-stained smear


What is unusual about the Chlamydial cell wall?

Lacks muramic acid


What are the serotypes of Chlamydia trachomatis? List them based on similar presentations.

(1) Types A, B, and C (2) Types D-K (3) Types L1, L2, and L3


What disease/condition(s) do C. trachomatis serotypes A, B, and C cause, and where in the world?

Chronic infection, cause blindness due to follicular conjuctivitis in Africa; Think: "ABC = Africa, Blindness, (Conjuctivitis)/Chronic infection and D-K - everything else"


What disease/condition(s) do C. trachomatis serotypes D-K cause?

Urethritis/PID, ectopic pregnancy, neonatal pneumonia (staccato cough), or neonatal conjuctivitis


How can neonatal Chlamydial disease be acquired?

During passage through infected birth canal


What disease/condition(s) do C. trachomatis Types L1, L2, and L3 cause? What characterizes it? How is it treated?

Lymphogranuloma venereum; small , painless ulcers on genitals => swollen, painful inguinal lymph nodes that ulcerated ("buboes"); treat with doxycycline


What condition/disease does Mycoplasma pneumoniae classically cause? How does it present clinically and appear on X-ray?

Atypical "walking" pneumonia; Insidious onset, headache, nonproductive cough, diffuse interstitial infiltrate, X-ray looks worse than patient


With what immunological finding(s) and/or process(es) is Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection (Atypical "walking" pneumonia) associated? What can result from this/these immunological finding(s)?

High titer of cold agglutinins (IgM), which can agglutinate or lyse RBCs


On what type of agar is Mycoplasma pneumoniae grown?

Eaton's agar


How is Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection treated? What antibiotic is ineffective, and why?

Macrolide, doxycycline, or Fluoraquinolone (Penicillin ineffective since Mycoplasma have no cell wall)


How do Mycoplasma pneumoniae appear on Gram stain, and why?

Not seen on Gram stain; No cell wall


What important content does Mycoplasma pneumonia contain is its membrane, and what role does this play?

Bacterial membrane contains sterols for stability


In what patient population is Mycoplasma pneumonia more common? In what populations/settings are frequent outbreaks seen?

Patients < 30 years of age; Frequent outbreaks in military recruits and prisons


What kind of organism is Gardnerella vaginalis, particularly in terms of morphology and gram stain?

A pleomorphic, gram-variable rod


What condition does Gardnerella vaginalis cause, and how does this condition present?

Causes Vaginosis, presenting as a gray vaginal discharge with a fishy smell but nonpainful (vs vaginitis)


With what is Gardnerella vaginalis associated? What is an important distinction to make with regards to this association?

Associated with sexual activity, but not an STD


What pathogen causes Bacterial vaginosis? What characterizes/defines this condition?

Gardnerella vaginalis; Bacterial vaginosis is characterized by overgrowth of certain anaerobic bacteria in vagina


What pathogen causes Bacterial vaginosis? What microscopic finding suggests Bacterial vaginosis?

Gardnerella vaginalis; Clue cells (vaginal epithelial cells covered with bacteria) are visible under the microscope


How is Bacterial vaginitis due to Gardnerella vaginalis treated?

Metronidazole or (to treat anaerobic bacteria) clindamycin


What is a way to remember the histological finding, primary presentation, location, and pathogen associated with Bacteria vaginosis?

i don't have a CLUE why I smell FISH in the VAGINA GARDEN = Clue cells, gray discharge with fishy smell, caused by Gardnerella vaginalis


What is the treatment for all Rickettsial disease and vector-borne illness?



What finding separates Rickettsial infections from other tick-borne illnesses?

Rash in Rickettsial infections; No rash in non-Rickettsial infections

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