Micro - Virology (Herpesviruses) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Micro - Virology (Herpesviruses) Deck (34)
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Name 7 major Herpesviruses.

(1) HSV-1 (2) HSV-2 (3) VZV (4) EBV (5) CMV (6) HHV-6 (Note: HHV-7 is less common cause of same condition as HHV-6) (7) HHV-8


What are the 2 routes of transmission for HSV-1?

Respiratory secretions, saliva


What 4 diseases result from HSV-1 infection?

(1) Gingivostomatitis (2) Keratoconjuctivitis (3) Temporal lobe encephalitis (4) Herpes labialis


What is the most common cause of sporadic encephalitis in the US, and what virus causes it?

Temporal lobe encephalitis; HSV-1


Where are the following herpesviruses latent: (1) HSV-1 (2) HSV-2 (3) VZV (4) EBV?

(1) Trigeminal ganglia (2) Sacral ganglia (3) Dorsal root or trigeminal ganglia (4) B cells


What 2 diseases result form HSV-2 infection?

(1) Herpes genitalis (2) Neonatal herpes


What 3 diseases result from VZV infection?

(1) Varicella-zoster (chickenpox, shingles) (2) Encephalitis (3) Pneumonia


Where is latent HSV-1 found?

Latent in trigeminal ganglia


Where is latent HSV-2 found?

Latent in sacral ganglia


Where is latent VZV found?

Latent in dorsal root or trigeminal ganglia


What are the 2 routes of transmission for HSV-2?

Sexual contact, perinatal


What is the route of transmission for VZV?

Respiratory secretions


What are the 2 routes of transmission for EBV?

Respiratory secretions, saliva


What infectious disease is caused by EBV? What 4 symptoms characterize it?

Mononucleosis. Characterized by fever, hepatosplenomegaly, pharyngitis, and lymphadenopathy (especially posterior cervical nodes).


How is EBV transmitted? What is another name for this infection, and why?

Transmitted by respiratory secretions and saliva; also called "kissing disease" since commonly seen in teens, young adults.


What 2 herpesviruses share the same 2 routes of transmission? What are those 2 routes of transmission?

(1) HSV-1 (2) EBV; Respiratory secretions, saliva


What are the 6 routes of transmission for CMV?

(1) Congenital (2) Transfusion (3) Sexual contact (4) Saliva (5) Urine (6) Transplant


What 4 diseases result from CMV?

(1) Congenital infection (2) Mononucleosis (negative Monospot) (3) Pneumonia (4) Retinitis


What is the characteristic histologic finding associated with CMV infection?

Infected cells have characteristic "owl's eye" inclusions


Where is latent CMV found?

Latent in mononuclear cells


What is characteristic of mononucleosis due to CMV infection?

Negative Monospot (unlike EBV, which is positive Monospot)


What is the route of transmission for HHV-6?

Transmitted by saliva


What is the route of transmission for HHV-8?

Sexual contact


What disease does HHV-6 cause? How does it present?

Roseola: high fevers for several days that can cause seizures, followed by a diffuse macular rash


What disease does HHV-8 cause, and in what patient population is it seen?

Kaposi's sarcoma, a neoplasm of endothelial cells. Seen in HIV/AIDS and transplant patients.


What is the test of choice for identification of HSV in the following contexts: (1) Skin/genitalia (2) Herpes encephalitis?

(1) Viral culture for skin/genitalia. (2) CSF PCR for herpes encephalitis.


What sample is taken for a Tzanck test? What does it detect? What virus is it used to identify?

A smear of an opened skin vesicle to detect multinucleated giant cells; HSV Identification; Think: "Tzanck heavens I do not have herpes"


Again what finding does the Tzank test detect, and in what conditions is this finding seen? What is another finding seen in these conditions but not detected by Tzanck test?

Tzanck test - a smear of an opened skin vesicle to detect multinucleated giant cells, HSV identification; Infected cells also have intranuclear Cowdry A inclusions


Aside from mononucleosis, with what other diseases/conditions is EBV associated?

Also associated with development of Hodgkin's and endemic Burkitt's lymphomas as well as nasopharyngeal carcinoma


What is the most common complication of shingles?

Most common complication of shingles is post-herpetic neuralgia


What cell type does EBV infect? Along those lines, what are the cell findings of EBV infection on peripheral blood smear?

Infects B cells. Atypical lymphocytes seen on peripheral blood smear are not infected B cells but rather reactive cytotoxic T cells


What kind of test is used for EBV infection? More specifically, what is detected by this test, and how?

Positive Monospot test; Heterophile antibodies detected by agglutination of sheep or horse RBCS.


Besides mononucleosis, what are 3 other conditions associated with EBV infection?

Associated with (1) Hodgkin lymphoma, (2) Endemic Burkitt lymphoma, (3) Nasopharyngeal carcinoma.


Again, what virus is associated with Kaposi sarcoma? Briefly describe the appearance of Kaposi sarcoma on the skin. What are 2 other areas that this may also affect?

HHV-8; Dark/Violaceous flat and nodular skin lesions representing endothelial growths. Can also affect GI tract and lungs.

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