Micro, USMLE Part 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Micro, USMLE Part 2 Deck (348)
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1

Levels as HIV infxn progresses: CD4+ lymphocytes? Anti-p24 Abs? Anti-gp120 Abs? Virus, p24 Ag?

CD4+ T-cells have an early dip, stabilize, and fall during stages 3-4 (years after infxn) Anti-p24 and Anti-gp120 Abs rise starting ~1 mo. post-infxn, stabilize @ 3 mos (at end of acute infxn). Virus, p24 Ag: spike early (w/ start of acute Sx's), drop to low level until stages 3-4 (years later), when they take off

2

Organ system affected in AIDS: Brain (what is the infxn/dz associated?)

Infxn/dz associated w/ AIDS: Crytococcal meningitis Toxoplasmosis CMV encephalopathy AIDS dementia PML (JC virus)

3

Organ system affected in AIDS: Eyes (what is the infxn/dz associated?)

Infxn/dz associated w/ AIDS: CMV retinitis

4

Organ system affected in AIDS: Mouth and throat (what is the infxn/dz associated?)

Infxn/dz associated w/ AIDS: Thrush (Candida albicans) HSV CMV Oral hairy leukoplakia (EBV)

5

Organ system affected in AIDS: Lungs (what is the infxn/dz associated?)

Infxn/dz associated w/ AIDS: Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PJP) TB histoplasmosis

6

Organ system affected in AIDS: GI (what is the infxn/dz associated?)

Infxn/dz associated w/ AIDS: Cryptosporidiosis Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex CMV colitis Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (EBV) Isopora belli

7

Organ system affected in AIDS: Skin (what is the infxn/dz associated?)

Infxn/dz associated w/ AIDS: Shingles (VZV) Kaposi's sarcoma (HHV-8)

8

Organ system affected in AIDS: Genitals (what is the infxn/dz associated?)

Infxn/dz associated w/ AIDS: Genital herpes warts cervical cancer (HPV)

9

HIV-assicated infxns that increase in risk at CD4+ count:

Infxn: Oral thrush Tinea pedis (athlete's foot) Reactivation VZV Reactivation tuberculosis Other bacterial infxns (e.g., H. influenzae, S. pneumoniae, Salmonella)

10

HIV-assicated infxns that increase in risk at CD4+ count:

Infxn: Reactivation HSV cryptosporidosis Isopora Disseminated coccidioidomycosis Pneumocystis pneumonia

11

HIV-assicated infxns that increase in risk at CD4+ count:

Infxn: Candidal esophagitis Toxoplamosis histoplasmosis

12

HIV-assicated infxns that increase in risk at CD4+ count:

Infxn: CMV retinitis and esophagitis Disseminated M. avium-intracellulare Cryptococcal meningitis

13

Neoplasms associated w/ HIV

Kaposi's sarcoma (HHV-8) Invasive cervical carcinoma (HPV) Primary CNS lymphoma non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

14

HIV encephalitis

Occurs late in the course of HIV infxn. Virus gains CNS access via infected Macrophages. Microglial nodules w/ multinucleated giant cells.

15

Prions What are they? What dz's do they cause? Normal vs. pathologic prions?

Infectious agents that do not contain RNA or DNA (consist only of proteins); encoded by cellular genes. Dz's: Creutzfeldt-Jakob dz (CJD -- rapidly progressive dementia), kuru, srapie (sheep), mad cow dz Associated w/ spongiform encephalopathy . Normal prions have alpha-helix conformation; pathologic prions (like CJD) are beta-pleated sheets. Pathologic conformation accumulates b/c it is resistant to proteinase digestion.

16

Dominant normal flora of the: Skin

Staphylococcus epidermis

17

Dominant normal flora of the: Nose

S. epidermis; colonized by S. aureus

18

Dominant normal flora of the: Oropharynx

Viridans group streptococci

19

Dominant normal flora of the: Dental plaque

Streptococcus mutans

20

Dominant normal flora of the: Colon

Bacteroides fragilis > E. coli

21

Dominant normal flora of the: Vagina

Lactobacillus, colonized by E. coli and GBS

22

Neonates and normal flora

Neonates delivered by cesarean section havve no flora, but are rapidly colonized after birth.

23

Food poisoning from: Vibrio parahemolyticus and V. vulnificus

Food: Contaminated seafood (V. vulnificus can also cause wound infxn from contact w/ contaminated water or shellfish)

24

Food poisoning from: Bacillus cereus

Food: reheated rice. (Food poisoning from reheated rice? Be Serious! [B. cereus])

25

Food poisoning from: S. aureus

Food: Meats, mayonnaise, custard (pre-formed toxin)

26

Food poisoning from: Clostridium perfringens

Food: reheated meat dishes

27

Food poisoning from: Clostridium botulinum

Food: improperly canned foods (bulging cans)

28

Food poisoning from: E. coli O157:H7

Food: Undercooked meat

29

Food poisoning from: Salmonella

Food: poultry, meat, and eggs.

30

What are two bacteria that cause a food poisoning that starts quickly and ends quickly?

S. aureus and B. cereus