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Flashcards in microbio Deck (118)
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1

major groups of life (3) inc. eg's

-eukaryotes (protozoa/fungi)
-prokaryotes (bacteria)
-non-living (viruses)

2

components of cell structure (4)

-plasma membrane
-cell wall
-ribosomes
-capsule/flagellar/pili

3

is the cell wall gram +ve or -ve

can be both (LPS= component of gram -ve outer membrane)

4

importance of cell wall

target of penicillin

5

what is the gram -ve outer membrane layer composed of

lipopolysaccharide (LPS)

6

are fimbriae gram -ve or +ve

gram -ve

7

role of fimbriae

adherence and sex

8

steps involved in prokaryotic protein synthesis (3)

1. gene (DNA) -> mRNA (DNA dependent RNA polymerase) = transcription
2. mRNA -> ribosome (tRNA)
3. ribosome (tRNA) -> protein (translation)

9

importance of prokaryotic protein syntheses

target for antibiotics

10

where does prokaryotic protein synthesis take place

cytoplasmic membrane

11

what food source is required for prokaryotic growth (4)

-C source (organic e.g. proteins/sugars, and inorganic e.g. fix CO2)
-oxygen and hydrogen
-N source (amino acid ammonia)
-inorganic salts (P, S, K, Mg, Ca, Fe)

12

what is the most important requirement for prokaryotic growth

oxygen

13

prokaryotic growth requirements

-nutrition (food)
-environment (temp., hydrogen ion conc/pH, osmotic protection, oxygen)

14

bacteria involved in dental caries and classification (2)

-cocci (streptococci)
-bacilli (lactobacilli)
-> both facultative anaerobes
-> GRAM POSITIVE

15

bacteria involved in periodontal diseases and classification

-bacilli (GNABS)
->anaerobic
-> GRAM NEGATIVE

16

tb

bacteria in lungs

17

DNA evidence techniques involved in molecular analysis of bacteria (2)

-16s RNA
-metagenomics

18

classification/taxonomy of the animalia kingdom:
-kingdom
-phylum
-class
-order
-family
-genus
-species

-kingdom = animalia
-phylum = chordata
-class = mammalia
-order =primates
-family = hominoidea
-genus = homo
-species = sapiens

19

classification/taxonomy of the bacteria kingdom:
-kingdom
-phylum
-class
-order
-family
-genus
-species

-kingdom = bacteria
-phylum = firmicutes
-class = bacilli
-order = bacillales
-family = bacillaceae
-genus = bacillus
-species = subtilis

20

important ways of classifying bacteria (3)

-shape (coccus, bacillus, etc)
-cell wall (grams stain)
-metabolism (growth in oxygen- aerobic, anaerobic, facultative)

21

why is classifying bacteria and identifying the organism involved in infection so important

it is the first step in treatment

22

bacteria shapes (3)

-cocci (spheres)
-bacilli (rods)
-spiral shaped

23

eg. of rigid spiral bacterium

spirillum

24

eg. of flexible spiral bacterium

spirochaete

25

difference in gram -ve and gram +ve cell wall

gram -ve:
->cytoplasmic membrane
->peptidoglycan
->outer membrane
->lipopolysaccharide

gram +ve:
->cytoplasmic membrane
->peptidoglycan
->teichoic acid

26

aerobic bacteria definition

grow in oxygen

27

obligate aerobe bacteria definition

require oxygen

28

obligate anaerobe bacteria definition

killed by oxygen

29

facultative anaerobic bacteria definition

tolerate oxygen

30

how do most bacteria divide during the bacterial cell cycle

binary fission (into 2 identical daughter cells)