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Year 2 - Musculoskeletal (DP) > Microbiology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Microbiology Deck (59)
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1

What organisms are typically involved in a prosthetic joint infection?

Coagulase negative Staph
Staph aureus
Strep spp
Propionibacterium acnes

2

What organisms typically cause septic arthritis?

Staph aureus
Strep spp

3

What organisms tend to be responsible for post-traumativ infections?

Staph aureus
Polymicrobial
Coliforms
Pseudomonas

4

What bacteria are often involved in vertebral osteomyelitis?

Staph aureus
Coliforms
Strep spp
Mycobacterium tuberculosis

5

What organisms typically cause diabetic foot infections?

Staph aureus
Strep spp
Coliforms
Pseudomonas
Anaerobes

6

What bacteria is a less common infective organism but is more common in kids under 5 years old?

Kingellin

7

A 3 year old child presents with pain in his right hip. his mother says he hasn't been feeding very well. On examination his temperature is 39.1, and there is obvious swelling and erythema over his right hip. Any attempt to touch or move the hip is met with obvious pain.

Acute bone and joint infection

8

How do we classify Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS)?

Two or more of:
- Temperature >38 or 20 or PaCO2 12,000 cells/mm^3 OR 90

9

What are some rarer causes of septic arthritis?

Haemophilus influenzae
Neisseria gonorrhoea

10

When would a blood culture be carried out?

If the patient is pyrexial

11

What is the empiric treatment for septic arthritis in:
1. Adults
2. Kids

1. High dose flucloxacillin
2. High dose flucloxacillin and ceftriaxone

12

How long does septic arthritis treatment continue?

2-4 weeks

13

What is osteomyelitis?

Inflammation of bone and medullary cavity

14

Where does osteomyelitis tend to occur?

Long bones
Vertebrae

15

What are acute causes of osteomyelitis?

MSSA
Strep spp

16

What bacteria may cause chronic osteomyelitis?

Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Pseudomonas
Salmonella
Brucella
Coliforms

17

How long does acute osteomyelitis last?

Few days to

18

How might osteomyelitis spread into the joint space?

Since metaphysis is intracapsular in these joints:
- Shoulder
- Ankle
- Hip
- Elbow

19

Why are infants at an increased risk of septic arthritis after osteomyelitis?

Vessels cross into epiphysis

20

What processes occur that may lead to chronic osteomyelitis?

1. Abscess
2. Permanent damage
3. Septicaemia

21

Why is there not an immediate need for antibiotics in chronic osteomyelitis?

SIRS is usually absent

22

When would we start antibiotics in chronic osteomyelitis?

Once we achieve culture results

23

What is the empiric treatment for osteomyelitis?

High dose flucloxacillin:
- Modify after culture
- 4 to 8 weeks

24

Which of the following is not a risk factor for a prosthetic joint infection:
- RA
- DM
- Malnutrition
- URTI
- Obesity

URTI

25

What are the three types of implant infection?

Early postoperative (0-3 months)
Delayed (Low grade) (3-24 months)
Late (> 24 months)

26

A patient presents with persistent pain in her left hip. She had a hip replacement 18 months ago. She is a diabetic and has a BMI of 32.

Delayed PJI

27

What features of CoNS make them difficult to treat?

Produce a biofilm over prosthesis

28

What cultures may aid in the diagnosis of a PJI?

Tissue and bone (multiple)

29

How do we treat a PJI?

Remove prosthesis and cement
Treat with antibiotics
Wait > 6 weeks until joint is re-implanted

30

How do we treat necrotising fasciitis?

Surgical debridement
Empirical antibiotics (Strep pyogenes):
- Penicillin - Kills bacterial
- Clindamycin - Reduces toxin production