What is the gold standard investigation for suspected STI in a
a) First pass urine sample
b) Vulvourethral swab
both for chlamydial/gonococcal PCR
What are the antibiotics of choice for
c) bacterial vaginosis
What are three subtypes of Chlamydia trachomatis which causes disease in men who have sex with men?
L1, 2 and 3
Clue cells on microscopy is a finding in which condition?
What is done after antibiotic treament for Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection?
Test of cure
Gonorrhoea is becoming resistant to all known antibiotics
What is adjuvant treatment alongside IM ceftriaxone for gonorrhoea in some trusts?
Which organisms are targeted by
in intra-abdominal sepsis?
a) Gram positives
How is intra-abdominal sepsis treated?
What causes hypotension in septic shock?
Widespread inflammation => Leaky vessels => Fluid becomes "unavailable" in the interstitium
How does septic shock respond to fluids?
Because administered fluids escape through leaky vessels
Gentamicin toxicity damages which cranial nerve?
CN VIII - Vestibulocochlear nerve
Causing hearing loss and dizziness (vertigo)
What are the most common causes of bacterial meningitis?
Strep. pneumoniae - children and general population, give rifampicin as prophylaxis and benzylpenicillin + dexamethasone as treatment
Neisseria meningitidis - adolescents / young adults, give IV ceftriaxone + dexamethasone
Listeria monocytogenes - elderly & immunosuppressed + dodgy cheese
Which drug is often given alongside antibiotics in bacterial meningitis?
Listeria monocytogenese infection is associated with the consumption of what?
Especially amongst pregnant women
Why is ceftriaxone chosen for empirical treatment for suspected bacterial meningitis instead of penicillin?
Ceftriaxone has a longer t1/2 than penicillin
So doses can be less frequent